Dipturus batis, Blue skate : fisheries, gamefish

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Dipturus batis (Linnaeus, 1758)

Blue skate
إضافة ملاحظاتك Fish Watcher
Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Dipturus batis   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
ارفع صور و مقاطع فيديو
Pictures | Stamps, Coins Misc. | صور قوقل
Image of Dipturus batis (Blue skate)
Dipturus batis
Male picture by Cambraia Duarte, P.M.N. (c)ImagDOP

التصنيف / Names الأسماء الشائعة | مرادفات | Catalog of Fishes(جنس, الانواع) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

أشلاق (القروش و الشفانين) (sharks and rays) > Rajiformes (Skates and rays) > Rajidae (Skates)
Etymology: Dipturus: Greek, di = two + Greek, pteryx = fin (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Linnaeus.

Issue
Junior synonym Raia intermedia Parnell, 1837 (= Dipturus intermedius) is considered valid in CofF ver. January 2018 following Last et al., 2016 (Ref. 114953). Its synonymy under the current species will be removed.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range البيئة

; بحري القاع; نطاق العمق 100 - 1000 m (Ref. 4426), usually 100 - 200 m (Ref. 4426).   Subtropical; 69°N - 12°N, 30°W - 42°E

التوزيع دول | مناطق الفاو | النظام البيئي | الظهور | Point map | مقدمة | Faunafri

Eastern Atlantic: Norway, Iceland, the Faroes to Senegal, including western Mediterranean and western part of the Baltic. Extirpated by trawling from much of its former range (Ref. 27438).

Length at first maturity / الحجم / وزن / العمر

Maturity: Lm 160.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 285 cm TL ذكر/ مختلط الجنس; (Ref. 35388); common length : 100.0 cm TL ذكر/ مختلط الجنس; (Ref. 3261); أعلا وزن تم نشرة: 97.1 kg (Ref. 40637)

وصف مختصر الوصف الخارجي | قياسات المظهر الخارجي

الأشواك الظهرية (المجموع): 0; شوكة شرجية 0; أشعه شرجية لينه: 0. Snout very long and pointed; length before eyes 2,5-4,0 times distance between them; disc broadly rhombic with acute outer corners; upper surface and underside smooth in young, partly prickly in larger specimens; no thorns on disc, a row of 12-18 thorns along tail; 40-56 tooth rows; upper surface olive-grey or brown with a variable pattern of light spots, underside ashy-grey to blue-grey (Ref. 3167).

أحياء     المصطلحات (على سبيل المثال epibenthic)

Benthic species in shelf and slope waters with a wide tolerance for depth and temperature (Ref. 4426). Found in coastal waters mainly within the 200 m range (Ref. 3167). Feeds on all kinds of bottom animals, including other skates (Ref. 114953), large individuals prefer fish (Ref. 3167). Oviparous. Males reaches maturity at ca. 115 cm TL, females at 123 cm TL; birth size at ca. 21 cm TL (Ref. 114953). Distinct pairing with embrace. Young may tend to follow large objects, such as their mother (Ref. 205). Mate in spring and the egg capsules are laid during the summer. Eggs are oblong capsules with stiff pointed horns at the corners deposited in sandy or muddy flats (Ref. 205). Egg capsules are 10.6-24.5 cm long and 5.0-14.5 cm wide (Ref. 41250). About 40 eggs per individual are laid annually (Ref. 41250). Flesh is marketed fresh or smoked (Ref. 35388).

Life cycle and mating behavior النضج | التكاثر | وضع البيض | بيض | الخصوبة | Larvae

Oviparous, paired eggs are laid. Embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref. 50449). Egg-cases laid in spring and summer, very large (Ref. 3167). Distinct pairing with embrace. Young may tend to follow large objects, such as their mother (Ref. 205). Eggs have horn-like projections on the shell (Ref. 205).

المرجع الرئيسي Upload your references | مراجع | المنظم : McEachran, John | المتعاونين

McEachran, J.D. and K.A. Dunn, 1998. Phylogenetic analysis of skates, a morphologically conservative clade of elasmobranchs (Chondrichthyes: Rajidae). Copeia 1998(2):271-290. (Ref. 27314)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)

  معرضه للخطر بشكل حرج (CR) (A2bcd+4bcd); Date assessed: 31 January 2006

CITES (Ref. 123416)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

خطر للأنسان

  Harmless





استخدامات بشرية

مصائد: غير مهمة تجارياً; لعبة سمكه: نعم
FAO - مصائد: landings; Publication: search | FishSource | البحر حولنا

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أدوات

تقارير خاصة

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مصادر علي الأنترنت

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 7.1 - 15, mean 9.8 °C (based on 243 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00339 (0.00193 - 0.00596), b=3.18 (3.03 - 3.33), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245).
مستوى غذائي (Ref. 69278):  3.5   ±0.6 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 19.3 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
المرونه (Ref. 120179):  منخفظ جدا, الحد الزمني الأدني لتضاعف عدد أفراد المجتمع أكثر من 14 سنة (K=0.06; tm=11; tmax=51).
عرضة للخطر (Ref. 59153):  Very high vulnerability (86 of 100) .
فئة السعر (Ref. 80766):   Medium.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 11.4 [1.2, 70.4] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.747 [0.141, 2.948] mg/100g ; Protein = 16.3 [14.2, 18.3] % ; Omega3 = 0.35 [0.15, 0.83] g/100g ; Selenium = 32 [9, 131] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 7.2 [1.5, 36.3] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.393 [0.099, 1.446] mg/100g (wet weight);