Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; marinhas demersal; oceanódromo (Ref. 51243); intervalo de profundidade 20 - 650 m (Ref. 6144), usually 20 - 50 m. Temperate; 73°N - 20°N, 99°W - 32°E (Ref. 1371)
Eastern Atlantic: from Norway, Greenland and Iceland south to British Isles and northern Bay of Biscay, including the North Sea and the southern Baltic Sea (70°N to 20°N). Western Atlantic: from Greenland to northern Gulf of Mexico (Ref. 125219). Reported from Estonia (Ref. 33247).
Comprimento de primeira maturação / Tamanho / Peso / Idade
Maturity: Lm 25.0, range 15 - ? cm
Max length : 41.0 cm TL macho/indeterminado; (Ref. 1371); common length : 30.0 cm TL macho/indeterminado; (Ref. 1371); idade máx. registrada: 9 anos (Ref. 1371)
Espinhos dorsais (total): 0; Espinhos anais 0. One barbel on chin, one on tip of snout, and one at each of the anterior nostril. First dorsal fin ray very elongate, followed by a row of small, fleshy filaments. Color varies from dusky to pale.
Sedentary bottom dwellers on muddy sand between patches of hard substrate, or on the soft, smooth ground of deep sinks on the continental slopes of both sides of the North Atlantic. Feed on flatfishes, amphipods, decapods, copepods, mysids, shrimps, isopods and other small crustaceans. Spawn in the Baltic Sea (Ref. 35388). Mixed with soups and other products hot-smoked (Ref. 1371).
Spawning has been recorded in waters less than 140 m deep. Fecundity ranges from 5,000 - 45,000.
Cohen, D.M., T. Inada, T. Iwamoto and N. Scialabba, 1990. FAO species catalogue. Vol. 10. Gadiform fishes of the world (Order Gadiformes). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of cods, hakes, grenadiers and other gadiform fishes known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(10). Rome: FAO. 442 p. (Ref. 1371)
Status na Lista Vermelha da UICN (Ref. 125652)
Ameaça para os humanos
Uso pelos humanos
Pescarias: pouco comercial
Fontes da internet
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 4.1 - 13.8, mean 10 °C (based on 715 cells).
Índice de diversidade filogenética (Ref. 82804
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00407 (0.00245 - 0.00678), b=3.07 (2.92 - 3.22), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Nível Trófico (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.0 se; based on diet studies.
Resiliência (Ref. 120179
): médio(a), tempo mínimo de duplicação da população 1,4 - 4,4 anos (K=0.20-0.25; tm=3; tmax=9; Fec=5,000).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (46 of 100).
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): Low vulnerability (6 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 47.5 [23.2, 97.3] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.281 [0.158, 0.533] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.7 [15.9, 19.6] % ; Omega3 = 0.395 [0.214, 0.718] g/100g ; Selenium = 20.4 [10.6, 44.6] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 11.9 [3.4, 40.9] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.635 [0.412, 1.024] mg/100g (wet weight);