Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
() > Lethrinidae
(Emperors or scavengers) > Lethrininae
Etymology: Lethrinus: Greek, lethrinia, a fish pertaining to genus Pagellus. More on author: Valenciennes.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; non-migratory; depth range 1 - 50 m (Ref. 2683). Tropical; 20°N - 5°S
Eastern Central Atlantic: Senegal to Gabon; also Cape Verde, São Tome-Principe Islands, and Rolas Islands. There is little doubt that only a single species of Lethrinus exists in the tropical western Atlantic.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 22.8, range 21 - ? cm
Max length : 50.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2295); common length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2295)
soft rays: 8. The outer surface of the maxilla is smooth, without a knob or pronounced longitudinal ridge. Inner surface of the pectoral fin axil without scales. Overall color is olive green or brown and pinkish. The cheeks have a network of fine reticulations below the eye.
Found in shallow coastal waters (Ref. 2263). Feeds mainly on bottom-dwelling invertebrates. Marketed fresh (Ref. 171), smoked and dried salted (Ref. 2295). Abundant during the winter months (Ref. 2683).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Carpenter, K.E. and G.R. Allen, 1989. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 9. Emperor fishes and large-eye breams of the world (family Lethrinidae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of lethrinid species known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(9):118 p. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 2295)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.4 - 28, mean 26.6 °C (based on 60 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01479 (0.00913 - 0.02397), b=2.95 (2.82 - 3.08), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.46 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Assuming tm=2).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (38 of 100) .