(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Lethrinidae
(Emperors or scavengers) > Lethrininae
Etymology: Lethrinus: Greek, lethrinia, a fish pertaining to genus Pagellus. More on author: Valenciennes.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; laut berasosiasi dengan karang; nir-ruaya; kisaran kedalaman ? - 40 m (Ref. 9710). Tropical; 30°N - 30°S, 33°E - 93°E
Indian Ocean: including the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf south to Durban, South Africa, then east to North Bay Reef, Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Reports of this species elsewhere are probably due to misidentification.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / umur
Maturity: Lm 21.3  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 40.0 cm TL jantan/; (Ref. 2295); common length : 25.0 cm TL jantan/; (Ref. 2295)
Duri punggung (Keseluruhan (total)): 10; duri punggung lunak (Keseluruhan (total)): 9; Duri dubur 3; Sirip dubur lunak: 8. The inner surface of the pectoral fin base is densely scaled; posterior angle of the operculum is fully scaled; cheeks without scales. Color of body is dark gray or yellow-brown, head is brown-gray. The centers of scales are lighter. Sometimes there is an irregular pattern of broken dusky bars becoming whitish on the lower part of the body. The pectoral and pelvic fins are white of pinkish. The dorsal and anal fins are mottled white or yellowish with reddish edge. The caudal fin has indistinct reddish bands.
Found in sandy areas near reefs during daytime, sometimes in small groups. At night, they are solitary and range over reef-flats and slopes where they feed primarily on echinoderms, mollusks and crustaceans (Ref. 2295). The taxonomy of this species has been considerably confused.
Exhibits juvenile hermaphroditism (Ref. 107020).
Carpenter, K.E. and G.R. Allen, 1989. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 9. Emperor fishes and large-eye breams of the world (family Lethrinidae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of lethrinid species known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(9):118 p. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 2295)
Status IUCN Red List (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
ancaman kepada manusia
Perikanan: nilai komersial kecil
AcuanBudidaya airprofil budidaya airStrainGenetikaFrekuensi alelDiturunkanPenyakit-penyakitPengolahanNutrientsMass conversion
mitraGambarStamps, Coins Misc.Suara-suaraCiguateraKecepatanTipe renangArea insangOtolithsOtakPenglihatan / visi
muat turun XML
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 25.5 - 29.2, mean 27.2 °C (based on 250 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01445 (0.00677 - 0.03085), b=2.99 (2.82 - 3.16), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.41 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 1.6 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Daya lenting (Ref. 120179
): Tinggi, Waktu penggandaan populasi minimum kurang dari 15 bulan (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
keancaman (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (21 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 61.3 [40.7, 101.6] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.15 [0.74, 1.68] mg/100g ; Protein = 20.4 [18.2, 22.4] % ; Omega3 = 0.135 [0.095, 0.196] g/100g ; Selenium = 52.3 [30.8, 89.3] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 12.1 [2.9, 69.9] μg/100g ; Zinc = 2.31 [1.60, 3.27] mg/100g (wet weight);