Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Ophidiiformes
(Cusk eels) > Bythitidae
Etymology: Parabrotula: Greek, para = the side of + Latin, brotula, -ae = little, bud, shoot (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathypelagic; depth range 0 - 3000 m (Ref. 35509). Deep-water
Northeast Atlantic: most of the known specimens from the area (Ref. 36126). Eastern Atlantic: Gulf of Guinea, one specimen 0°42'S, 7°E (Ref. 10800). Southeast Atlantic: off East London, South Africa. Western Pacific: Japan and Australia (Ref. 11228).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 5.4 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 35509)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Found on the continental slope (Ref. 75154). Viviparous (Ref. 10800). Minimum depth from Ref. 58018.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Anderson, M.E., 1986. Parabrotulidae. p. 343. In M.M. Smith and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Smiths' sea fishes. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. (Ref. 6608)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 3.7 - 10.6, mean 6 °C (based on 497 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.8750 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00102 (0.00046 - 0.00225), b=3.06 (2.88 - 3.24), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Assuming Fec<100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .