Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Myctophiformes
(Lanternfishes) > Myctophidae
(Lanternfishes) > Myctophinae
Etymology: Symbolophorus: Greek, symbolon, ou = mark, signal + Greek, pherein = to carry (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathypelagic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 100 - 800 m (Ref. 27000). Deep-water
Circumglobal in the southern hemisphere between about 30°S and the subtropical convergence. Eastern Atlantic: probably south of about 11°S.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 10 - ? cm
Max length : 11.6 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4479)
Morphology | Morphometrics
High-oceanic, mesopelagic species; nyctoepipelagic at the surface. Reach sexual maturity at 9.5 cm (Ref. 47377). Taken by midwater trawls in the upper 750 meters (Ref. 33839).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Hulley, P.A., 1990. Myctophidae. p. 398-467. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI; Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 1. (Ref. 4479)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 8.4 - 16, mean 11.7 °C (based on 131 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5039 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00389 (0.00180 - 0.00842), b=3.12 (2.94 - 3.30), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.1 ±0.30 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (37 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 63.1 [22.0, 194.3] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.675 [0.332, 1.606] mg/100g ; Protein = 16.5 [14.7, 18.2] % ; Omega3 = 0.613 [0.271, 1.443] g/100g ; Selenium = 11.4 [4.2, 30.3] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 41.1 [8.6, 208.2] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.794 [0.440, 1.432] mg/100g (wet weight);