Alosa pseudoharengus, Alewife : fisheries, bait

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Alosa pseudoharengus (Wilson, 1811)

Alewife
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Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
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Alosa pseudoharengus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Alosa pseudoharengus (Alewife)
Alosa pseudoharengus
Picture by Scarola, J.F.

Классификация / Names народные названия | синонимы | Catalog of Fishes(род, виды) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

> Clupeiformes (Herrings) > Clupeidae (Herrings, shads, sardines, menhadens) > Alosinae
Etymology: Alosa: Latin, alausa = a fish cited by Ausonius and Latin, halec = pickle, dealing with the Greek word hals = salt; it is also the old Saxon name for shad = "alli" ; 1591 (Ref. 45335);  pseudoharengus: From the words pseudo, meaning false and harengus, meaning herring (Ref. 10294).

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range экология

; морской; пресноводный; солоноватоводный; анадромный (Ref. 51243); пределы глубины 5 - 145 m (Ref. 4639), usually 56 - 110 m (Ref. 5951).   Temperate; 55°N - 34°N, 93°W - 53°W (Ref. 86798)

распространение страны | регионы FAO | Ecosystems | места находок | Point map | интродукции | Faunafri

North America: Atlantic coast from Red Bay, Labrador in Canada to South Carolina in USA; many landlocked populations exist. Individuals with access to ocean are anadromous, ascending coastal rivers during spring spawning migraitons. Native to Lake Ontario; introduced into other Great Lakes via Welland Canal (first taken in Lake Erie in 1931). Introduced elsewhere, including New River in West Virginia and Virginia, and upper Tennessee River system in Tennessee, USA.

Length at first maturity / Size / Вес / Возраст

Maturity: Lm ?, range 11 - ? cm
Max length : 40.0 cm SL самец/пол неопределен; (Ref. 7251); common length : 30.0 cm SL самец/пол неопределен; (Ref. 7251); наибольший вес (опубликованные данные): 200.00 g (Ref. 7251); наибольший возраст (опубликованны данные): 9 годы (Ref. 72462)

Краткое описание морфология | морфометрия

колючие лучи спинного плавника (общее число): 0; колючие лучи анального плавника 0. Moderately compressed, belly with a distinct keel of scutes. Lower jaw rising steeply within mouth; minute teeth present at front of jaws (disappearing with age). Lower gill rakers increasing with age. A dark spot on shoulder. Distinguished from A. aestivalis by its silvery peritoneum; eye larger than snout length; back greyish green on capture.

биология     глоссарий (например epibenthic)

Occurs in open water over all bottom types (Ref. 86798). Movement of schooling adults apparently restricted to coastal areas proximal to natal estuaries (Ref. 4639). They migrate up rivers and even small streams to spawn in lakes and quiet stretches of rivers, then return to sea shortly after spawning (Ref. 4639); landlocked populations also ascend affluent rivers and streams. Larvae remain in vicinity of spawning grounds, forming schools at sizes less than 10 mm TL, within one to two weeks after hatching (Ref. 4639), then descend in summer and autumn or even as late as November or December. Feed on shrimps and small fishes; the young on diatoms, copepods and ostracods while in rivers. Utilized fresh, dried or salted, smoked and frozen; eaten fried (Ref. 9988). Also used for crab and lobster bait and sometimes for pet food (Ref. 9988). Parasites found are Acanthocephala, cestodes, trematodes and copepods. Overfishing, pollution and impassable dams cause the decline of stocks (Ref. 37032).

Life cycle and mating behavior половая зрелость | размножение | нерест | икра | Fecundity | личинки

Adults migrate up rivers and even small streams, spawn in lakes and quiet stretches of rivers; landlocked populations also ascend affluent rivers and streams; the fry descend in summer and autumn or even as late as November or December. Spawning activity has been observed both diurnally and nocturnally, but with greatest activity at night (Ref. 38797). Spawning activity stops above 27.8°C (Ref. 38881). Freshwater populations mature earlier and at a smaller average size than saltwater populations (Ref. 4639).

Основная ссылка Upload your references | ссылки | координатор | соавторы

Whitehead, P.J.P., 1985. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeoidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 188)

Статус Красного Списка МСОП (Ref. 123251)


CITES (Ref. 123416)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Угроза для людей

  Harmless





Использование человеком

рыболовство: коммерческий; наживка: occasionally
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ресурсы в Интернет

Alien/Invasive Species database | Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | Проверить FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes: род, виды | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | FAO - рыболовство: landings; Publication: search | Faunafri | Fishipedia | Fishtrace | GenBank: Геном, Нуклеотид | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | общественные аквариумы | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Socotra Atlas | Tree of Life | Wikipedia: Вперёд, поиск | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 0.5 - 10.4, mean 3.3 °C (based on 86 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00741 (0.00637 - 0.00863), b=3.00 (2.96 - 3.04), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
Trophic level (Ref. 69278):  3.4   ±0.3 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 2.7 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
устойчивость к внешним воздействиям (Ref. 120179):  средний (среднего размера), минимальное время удвоения популяции 1.4-4.4 года (K=0.2; tm=3.6; Fec=2,180).
Уязвимость (Ref. 59153):  Low to moderate vulnerability (29 of 100) .
Категория цены (Ref. 80766):   Low.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 28.2 [9.0, 122.6] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.778 [0.268, 1.849] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.6 [16.1, 21.3] % ; Omega3 = 2.67 [1.17, 6.23] g/100g ; Selenium = 15.7 [5.6, 36.7] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 13.9 [2.7, 59.4] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.505 [0.289, 1.028] mg/100g (wet weight);