Alosa pseudoharengus, Alewife : fisheries, bait

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Alosa pseudoharengus (Wilson 1811)

Alewife
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Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Alosa pseudoharengus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Alosa pseudoharengus (Alewife)
Alosa pseudoharengus
Picture by Scarola, J.F.

分類 / Names 共通名の | 類義語 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

> Clupeiformes (Herrings) > Clupeidae (Herrings, shads, sardines, menhadens) > Alosinae
Etymology: Alosa: Latin, alausa = a fish cited by Ausonius and Latin, halec = pickle, dealing with the Greek word hals = salt; it is also the old Saxon name for shad = "alli" ; 1591 (Ref. 45335);  pseudoharengus: From the words pseudo, meaning false and harengus, meaning herring (Ref. 10294).

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生態学

; 海; 新鮮な水; 汽水性の; 昇流魚 (Ref. 51243); 深さの範囲 5 - 145 m (Ref. 4639), usually 56 - 110 m (Ref. 5951).   Temperate; 55°N - 34°N, 93°W - 53°W (Ref. 86798)

分布 国々 | 国連食糧農業機関の区域 | エコシステム | 事件 | Point map | 導入 | Faunafri

North America: Atlantic coast from Red Bay, Labrador in Canada to South Carolina in USA; many landlocked populations exist. Individuals with access to ocean are anadromous, ascending coastal rivers during spring spawning migraitons. Native to Lake Ontario; introduced into other Great Lakes via Welland Canal (first taken in Lake Erie in 1931). Introduced elsewhere, including New River in West Virginia and Virginia, and upper Tennessee River system in Tennessee, USA.

Length at first maturity / サイズ / 重さ / 年齢

Maturity: Lm ?, range 11 - ? cm
Max length : 40.0 cm SL オス/雌雄の選別がない; (Ref. 7251); common length : 30.0 cm SL オス/雌雄の選別がない; (Ref. 7251); 最大公表体重: 200.00 g (Ref. 7251); 最大記録サイズ: 9 年 (Ref. 72462)

簡単な記述 形態学 | 形態計測学

背面の脊椎 (合計): 0; 肛門の骨 0. Moderately compressed, belly with a distinct keel of scutes. Lower jaw rising steeply within mouth; minute teeth present at front of jaws (disappearing with age). Lower gill rakers increasing with age. A dark spot on shoulder. Distinguished from A. aestivalis by its silvery peritoneum; eye larger than snout length; back greyish green on capture.

生物学     用語集 (例 epibenthic)

Occurs in open water over all bottom types (Ref. 86798). Movement of schooling adults apparently restricted to coastal areas proximal to natal estuaries (Ref. 4639). They migrate up rivers and even small streams to spawn in lakes and quiet stretches of rivers, then return to sea shortly after spawning (Ref. 4639); landlocked populations also ascend affluent rivers and streams. Larvae remain in vicinity of spawning grounds, forming schools at sizes less than 10 mm TL, within one to two weeks after hatching (Ref. 4639), then descend in summer and autumn or even as late as November or December. Feed on shrimps and small fishes; the young on diatoms, copepods and ostracods while in rivers. Utilized fresh, dried or salted, smoked and frozen; eaten fried (Ref. 9988). Also used for crab and lobster bait and sometimes for pet food (Ref. 9988). Parasites found are Acanthocephala, cestodes, trematodes and copepods. Overfishing, pollution and impassable dams cause the decline of stocks (Ref. 37032).

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟 | 繁殖 | 放精 | | 生産力 | 幼生

Adults migrate up rivers and even small streams, spawn in lakes and quiet stretches of rivers; landlocked populations also ascend affluent rivers and streams; the fry descend in summer and autumn or even as late as November or December. Spawning activity has been observed both diurnally and nocturnally, but with greatest activity at night (Ref. 38797). Spawning activity stops above 27.8°C (Ref. 38881). Freshwater populations mature earlier and at a smaller average size than saltwater populations (Ref. 4639).

主な参考文献 Upload your references | 参考文献 | コーディネーター | 協力者

Whitehead, P.J.P., 1985. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeoidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 188)

IUCNのレッドリストの状況は (Ref. 123251)

  軽度懸念 (LC) ; Date assessed: 01 March 2012

CITES (Ref. 123416)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

人間に対する脅威

  Harmless





Human uses

水産業: 商業; 餌: occasionally
FAO(水産業: 代謝; publication : search) | FishSource | 私達の周りの海

用具

特記事項

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インターネットの情報源

Alien/Invasive Species database | Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishipedia | Fishtrace | GenBank(ゲノム, ヌクレオチド) | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | 公共の水族館 | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Socotra Atlas | 生命の木 | Wikipedia(行く, 検索する) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | 動物に関する記録

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 0.5 - 10.4, mean 3.3 °C (based on 86 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00741 (0.00637 - 0.00863), b=3.00 (2.96 - 3.04), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
栄養段階 (Ref. 69278):  3.4   ±0.3 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 2.7 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
回復力 (Ref. 120179):  手段, 1.4年~4.4年の倍増期間の最小個体群 (K=0.2; tm=3.6; Fec=2,180).
弱み (Ref. 59153):  Low to moderate vulnerability (29 of 100) .
価格帯 (Ref. 80766):   Low.