Alosa pseudoharengus, Alewife : fisheries, bait

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Alosa pseudoharengus (Wilson, 1811)

Alewife
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Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Alosa pseudoharengus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Alosa pseudoharengus
Picture by Scarola, J.F.

分類 / Names 俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes(, ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopteri > Clupeiformes (Herrings) 鯡形目 (Herrings) > Clupeidae (Herrings, shads, sardines, menhadens) 鯡科 (Herrings, shads, sardines, menhadens) > Alosinae
Etymology: Alosa: Latin, alausa = a fish cited by Ausonius and Latin, halec = pickle, dealing with the Greek word hals = salt; it is also the old Saxon name for shad = "alli" ; 1591 (Ref. 45335);  pseudoharengus: From the words pseudo, meaning false and harengus, meaning herring (Ref. 10294).

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生態學

; 海洋; 淡水; 半鹹淡水; 溯河洄游 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 5 - 145 m (Ref. 4639), usually 56 - 110 m (Ref. 5951).   溫帶; 55°N - 34°N, 93°W - 53°W (Ref. 86798)

分布 國家 | FAO區域 | 生態系 | 發現紀錄 | Point map | 簡介 | Faunafri

North America: Atlantic coast from Red Bay, Labrador in Canada to South Carolina in USA; many landlocked populations exist. Individuals with access to ocean are anadromous, ascending coastal rivers during spring spawning migraitons. Native to Lake Ontario; introduced into other Great Lakes via Welland Canal (first taken in Lake Erie in 1931). Introduced elsewhere, including New River in West Virginia and Virginia, and upper Tennessee River system in Tennessee, USA.
北美洲: 大西洋的海岸從聖勞倫斯灣與新斯科舍省到北卡羅萊那州與在溪流與河川中; 也出現於塞內加湖與卡尤加湖中; 引入安大略湖中了, 現在陸封的在那裡與在伊利湖,休倫湖,密西根湖及上游。

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年齡

Maturity: Lm ?, range 11 - ? cm
Max length : 40.0 cm SL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 7251); common length : 30.0 cm SL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 7251); 最大體重: 200.00 g (Ref. 7251); 最大年齡: 9 年 (Ref. 72462)

簡短描述 型態特徵 | 形態測量圖

背棘 (總數): 0; 臀棘 0. Moderately compressed, belly with a distinct keel of scutes. Lower jaw rising steeply within mouth; minute teeth present at front of jaws (disappearing with age). Lower gill rakers increasing with age. A dark spot on shoulder. Distinguished from A. aestivalis by its silvery peritoneum; eye larger than snout length; back greyish green on capture.
中等側扁, 腹面有一個鱗甲的明顯龍骨脊。 下頜陡升在嘴裡面; 細小的齒出現在顎的前面。 (隨著年齡而消失) 下鰓耙隨著年齡增加。 在肩上的一個深色斑點。 用它的銀色腹膜與 A. aestivalis 區分了; 眼大於吻的長度; 在抓取上的背面略灰色的綠色。

生物學特性     字彙 (例如 epibenthic)

Occurs in open water over all bottom types (Ref. 86798). Movement of schooling adults apparently restricted to coastal areas proximal to natal estuaries (Ref. 4639). They migrate up rivers and even small streams to spawn in lakes and quiet stretches of rivers, then return to sea shortly after spawning (Ref. 4639); landlocked populations also ascend affluent rivers and streams. Larvae remain in vicinity of spawning grounds, forming schools at sizes less than 10 mm TL, within one to two weeks after hatching (Ref. 4639), then descend in summer and autumn or even as late as November or December. Feed on shrimps and small fishes; the young on diatoms, copepods and ostracods while in rivers. Utilized fresh, dried or salted, smoked and frozen; eaten fried (Ref. 9988). Also used for crab and lobster bait and sometimes for pet food (Ref. 9988). Parasites found are Acanthocephala, cestodes, trematodes and copepods. Overfishing, pollution and impassable dams cause the decline of stocks (Ref. 37032).

侷限於顯然的沿岸區域的群游性成魚的運動接近出生的河口。 (參考文獻 4639) 他們向上洄游到河,甚至小的溪流到產卵於湖與河川平靜的支流中, 然後返回大海在產卵之後不久;(參考文獻 4639) 陸封的族群也上溯到支流與溪流。 仔魚逗留在被小於 10 mm TL 時形成魚群的產卵場的鄰近區域,在孵化 (參考文獻 4639) 之後的一到二個星期裡面,然後在夏天與秋天下降或者甚至更晚到十一月或十二月。 捕食蝦與小魚; 在河中的時候幼魚捕食矽藻,橈腳類的動物與介形蟲。 生鮮使用, 乾燥或鹽醃, 煙燻與冷凍的; 油炸後食用.(參考文獻 9988) 也用來螃蟹與龍蝦誘餌與有時用作寵物飼料.(參考文獻 9988) 發現的寄生蟲是棘頭蟲,條蟲,吸蟲與橈腳類的動物。 捕撈過度, 污染與不能通行的水壩引起分枝的減少。 (參考文獻 37032)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | | 孕卵數 | 仔魚

Adults migrate up rivers and even small streams, spawn in lakes and quiet stretches of rivers; landlocked populations also ascend affluent rivers and streams; the fry descend in summer and autumn or even as late as November or December. Spawning activity has been observed both diurnally and nocturnally, but with greatest activity at night (Ref. 38797). Spawning activity stops above 27.8°C (Ref. 38881). Freshwater populations mature earlier and at a smaller average size than saltwater populations (Ref. 4639).北美洲: 大西洋的海岸從聖勞倫斯灣與新斯科舍省到北卡羅萊那州與在溪流與河川中; 也出現於塞內加湖與卡尤加湖中; 引入安大略湖中了, 現在陸封的在那裡與在伊利湖,休倫湖,密西根湖及上游。

主要參考資料 Upload your references | 參考文獻 | 合作者 | 合作者

Whitehead, P.J.P., 1985. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeoidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 188)

IUCN 瀕危狀態 (Ref. 123251)

  無危 (LC) ; Date assessed: 01 March 2012

CITES (Ref. 123416)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

對人類具威脅

  無害處的





人類使用

漁業: 商業性; 誘餌: occasionally
FAO - 漁業: landings; Publication: search | FishSource | 周邊海洋

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網路資源

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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 0.5 - 10.4, mean 3.3 °C (based on 86 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00741 (0.00637 - 0.00863), b=3.00 (2.96 - 3.04), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
營養階層 (Ref. 69278):  3.4   ±0.3 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 2.7 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
回復力 (Ref. 120179):  中等的, 族群倍增時間最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (K=0.2; tm=3.6; Fec=2,180).
瀕危性 (Ref. 59153):  Low to moderate vulnerability (29 of 100) .
價格種類 (Ref. 80766):   Low.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 28.2 [9.0, 122.6] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.778 [0.268, 1.849] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.6 [16.1, 21.3] % ; Omega3 = 2.67 [1.17, 6.23] g/100g ; Selenium = 15.7 [5.6, 36.7] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 13.9 [2.7, 59.4] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.505 [0.289, 1.028] mg/100g (wet weight);