Classification / Names
आम नाम | उपशब्द | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; समुद्री; स्वच्छ जल, अलवण जल; खारा प्रवाल-भित्ति संयुक्त; गहराई सीमा 4 - 180 m (Ref. 37816), usually 10 - 70 m (Ref. 30573). Tropical; 31°N - 33°S, 31°E - 128°W (Ref. 55)
Indo-Pacific: East Africa to the Marquesas and Line islands, north to the Ryukyu Islands, south to Australia. More common around oceanic islands than in continental areas.
Length at first maturity / आकार / वज़न / Age
Maturity: Lm 42.9, range 39 - ? cm
Max length : 90.0 cm TL पुल्लिंग / अलिंग; (Ref. 9987); common length : 76.0 cm SL पुल्लिंग / अलिंग; (Ref. 37816); अधिकतम प्रकाशित वज़न: 12.5 kg (Ref. 4699); अधिकतम सूचित उम्र: 55 वर्षो (Ref. 72420)
पृष्ठीय रीढ़ (सम्पूर्ण): 10; पृष्ठीय सौफट रेज़ (सम्पूर्ण): 13-14; गुदा कांटा 3; ऐनल सौफट रेज़: 8. This species is distinguished by the following characters: moderately deep body, its greatest depth 2.4-2.9 in SL; distinct groove or pit from nostrils to the front of the eye; preopercular notch and knob moderately developed; vomerine tooth patch narrow crescentic, without a medial posterior extension; gill rakers of first gill arch 6-7 + 16 = 22-23 (including rudiments). Colour of body dark reddish-brown with faint dark stripes; young and some adults with two silvery-white spots on back; pectoral fins pink with dorsal edge prominently black; juveniles sometimes have caudal end of body and the tail white. mimicking Chromis damselfishes (Ref. 9821, 90102).
Adults inhabit coral reefs, including sheltered lagoons and outer reefs (Ref. 30573). Usually found singly, often adjacent to steep outer reef slopes, but occasionally found in groups (Ref. 9710). Feeds mainly on fishes, but also take shrimps, crabs, amphipods, stomatopods, gastropods and urochordates. Large fish from oceanic areas in the western Pacific are often ciguatoxic, e.g., in Tuvalu (Ref. 9513). Caught mainly with handlines and bottom longlines (Ref. 9821). Utilized fresh and dried-salted (Ref. 9987). Juveniles mimic Chromis damselfishes (Ref. 90102).
Allen, G.R., 1985. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 6. Snappers of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of lutjanid species known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(6):208 p. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 55)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 4690)
मात्स्यिकी: व्यापारिक; आखेट मत्स्य: हां
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.5 - 29, mean 28 °C (based on 2402 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01259 (0.00819 - 0.01935), b=3.00 (2.88 - 3.12), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.3 ±0.5 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 12.1 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
लौटाव (Ref. 120179
): माध्यम, न्यूनतम जनसंख्या दुगनी होने का समय 1.4 - 4.4 वर्ष। (K=0.11-0.33; tmax=13).
Prior r = 0.41, 95% CL = 0.23 - 0.71, Based on 1 stock assessment.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (69 of 100) .