Scophthalmus maximus, Turbot : fisheries, aquaculture, gamefish, aquarium

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Scophthalmus maximus (Linnaeus, 1758)

Turbot
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Scophthalmus maximus
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分类 / Names 俗名 | 同种异名 | Catalog of Fishes(, ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopteri > Pleuronectiformes (Flatfishes) > Scophthalmidae (Turbots)
Etymology: Scophthalmus: Greek, skopelos = a lantern fish + Greek, ophthalmos = eyes (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生态学

; 海洋; 半咸淡水 居于水底的; 海洋洄游的 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 20 - 70 m (Ref. 6302).   溫帶; 70°N - 30°N, 23°W - 36°E

分布 国家 | FAO区域 | 生态系 | 标本纪录 | Point map | 简介 | Faunafri

Northeast Atlantic: throughout the Mediterranean and along the European coasts to Arctic Circle; also found in most of the Baltic Sea. Subspecies Psetta maxima maeotica in the Black Sea.
東北大西洋: 在地中海各處而且沿著歐洲的岸邊到北極圈圓圈; 也發現於大部分的波羅海。 在黑海的亞種 瘤棘鮃〔Psetta maxima〕 maeotica

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年龄

Maturity: Lm 34.7, range 41 - 54 cm
Max length : 100.0 cm SL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 4703); common length : 50.0 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 35388); common length :70 cm TL (female); 最大体重: 25.0 kg (Ref. 9988); 最大年龄: 25 年 (Ref. 32766)

简单描述 型态特徵 | 形态测量图

Body almost circular. Eye side without scales but with large bony tubercles (Ref. 35388).
身体几乎圆形。 眼侧边没有鳞片但是有大的多骨小瘤.(参考文献 35388)

生物学特性     字汇 (例如 epibenthic)

Adults live on sandy, rocky or mixed bottoms; rather common in brackish waters. Feed mainly on other bottom-living fishes (sand-eels, gobies, etc.), and also, to a lesser extent, on larger crustaceans and bivalves. Batch spawner (Ref. 51846). Spawning season is between April and August; pelagic eggs. May reach 25 kg (Ref. 9988). Highly esteemed food fish. Utilized fresh or frozen; eaten steamed, pan-fried, broiled, boiled, microwaved and baked (Ref. 9988).

生活在沙的,岩石的或混合的底部; 相当常见于半咸淡水域。 主要吃其他的底栖鱼 (沙子-鳗鱼,鰕虎鱼, 等等。), 以及, 对较少的范围, 在较大的甲壳动物与二枚贝上。 产卵季节在四月与八月之间; 大洋性的卵。 可以达到 25 公斤。 (参考文献 9988) 深受喜爱的食用鱼。 生鲜使用或冷冻; 清蒸, 油锅炸的,火烤的, 煮沸了, 微波了而且烧烤了.(参考文献 9988)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 产卵场 | | 孕卵数 | 仔鱼

Spawning usually happens between the months of February and April in the Mediterranean and from May to July in the Atlantic. Sequenced spawning every 2-4 days. Eggs have a single fat drop. Larvae are initially symmetric but, at the end of the metamorphosis (day 40-50, 25 mm), the right eye moves to the left side, losing its initial bilateral symmetry. Egg size 0.9 - 1.2 mm, larval length at hatching 2.7-3.1 mm.東北大西洋: 在地中海各處而且沿著歐洲的岸邊到北極圈圓圈; 也發現於大部分的波羅海。 在黑海的亞種 瘤棘鮃〔Psetta maxima〕 maeotica

主要参考文献 Upload your references | 参考文献 | 合作者 | 合作者

Bauchot, M.-L., 1987. Poissons osseux. p. 891-1421. In W. Fischer, M.L. Bauchot and M. Schneider (eds.) Fiches FAO d'identification pour les besoins de la pêche. (rev. 1). Méditerranée et mer Noire. Zone de pêche 37. Vol. II. Commission des Communautés Européennes and FAO, Rome. (Ref. 3397)

世界自然保护联盟红皮书 (Ref. 123251)

  不评价 

CITES (Ref. 123416)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

对人类的威胁

  无害处的





人类利用

渔业: 商业性; 养殖: 商业性; 游钓鱼种: 是的; 水族馆: 公众的水族馆
FAO - 养殖: 产生, 物种外形; 渔业: landings; Publication: search | FIRMS - Stock assessments | FishSource | 周边海洋

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特别资料

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网络资源

Alien/Invasive Species database | Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | 核实 FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes: , | DiscoverLife | DORIS | ECOTOX | FAO - 养殖: 产生, 物种外形; 渔业: landings; Publication: search | Faunafri | Fishipedia | Fishtrace | GenBank: 基因组, 核苷酸 | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | 国家资料库 | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | 公众的水族馆 | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Socotra Atlas | 树状分类阶层 | Wikipedia: 转至, 搜寻 | World Records Freshwater Fishing | 动物学的记录

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 5.9 - 11.9, mean 9.4 °C (based on 239 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5645   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01122 (0.00909 - 0.01385), b=3.06 (3.00 - 3.12), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
营养阶层 (Ref. 69278):  4.4   ±0.0 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 4.7 (3.6 - 5.8) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 24 growth studies.
回复力 (Ref. 120179):  中等的, 族群倍增时间最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (K=0.15-0.28; tm=3-5; tmax=26; Fec=5 million).
Prior r = 0.50, 95% CL = 0.33 - 0.74, Based on 9 stock assessments.
脆弱性 (Ref. 59153):  Moderate vulnerability (43 of 100) .
价格分类 (Ref. 80766):   Very high.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 30.3 [13.5, 70.7] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.173 [0.071, 0.645] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.6 [17.2, 19.9] % ; Omega3 = 0.592 [0.259, 1.369] g/100g ; Selenium = 22.4 [5.7, 61.8] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 11.1 [2.5, 54.2] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.225 [0.107, 0.696] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.