Scophthalmus maximus, Turbot : fisheries, aquaculture, gamefish, aquarium

You can sponsor this page

Scophthalmus maximus (Linnaeus, 1758)

Turbot
Adicionar sua observação em Fish Watcher
Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Scophthalmus maximus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
Carregue seu(sua) Fotos e vídeos
Pictures | Videos | Stamps, Coins Misc. | Imagem do Google
Image of Scophthalmus maximus (Turbot)
Scophthalmus maximus
Picture by Quantz, G.

Classificação / Names Nomes comuns | Sinônimos | Catalog of Fishes(Gênero, Espécies) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

> Pleuronectiformes (Flatfishes) > Scophthalmidae (Turbots)
Etymology: Scophthalmus: Greek, skopelos = a lantern fish + Greek, ophthalmos = eyes (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecologia

; marinhas; estuarina demersal; oceanódromo (Ref. 51243); intervalo de profundidade 20 - 70 m (Ref. 6302).   Temperate; 70°N - 30°N, 23°W - 36°E

Distribuição Países | Áreas da FAO | Ecossistemas | Ocorrências | Point map | Introduções | Faunafri

Northeast Atlantic: throughout the Mediterranean and along the European coasts to Arctic Circle; also found in most of the Baltic Sea. Subspecies Psetta maxima maeotica in the Black Sea.

Comprimento de primeira maturação / Tamanho / Peso / Idade

Maturity: Lm 34.7, range 41 - 54 cm
Max length : 100.0 cm SL macho/indeterminado; (Ref. 4703); common length : 50.0 cm TL macho/indeterminado; (Ref. 35388); common length :70 cm TL (female); peso máx. publicado: 25.0 kg (Ref. 9988); idade máx. registrada: 25 anos (Ref. 32766)

Descrição suscinta Morfologia | Morfometria

Body almost circular. Eye side without scales but with large bony tubercles (Ref. 35388).

Biologia     Glossário (p.ex. epibenthic)

Adults live on sandy, rocky or mixed bottoms; rather common in brackish waters. Feed mainly on other bottom-living fishes (sand-eels, gobies, etc.), and also, to a lesser extent, on larger crustaceans and bivalves. Batch spawner (Ref. 51846). Spawning season is between April and August; pelagic eggs. May reach 25 kg (Ref. 9988). Highly esteemed food fish. Utilized fresh or frozen; eaten steamed, pan-fried, broiled, boiled, microwaved and baked (Ref. 9988).

Ciclo de vida ou comportamento de acasalamento Maturidade | Reprodução | Desova | Ovos | Fecundidade | Larvas

Spawning usually happens between the months of February and April in the Mediterranean and from May to July in the Atlantic. Sequenced spawning every 2-4 days. Eggs have a single fat drop. Larvae are initially symmetric but, at the end of the metamorphosis (day 40-50, 25 mm), the right eye moves to the left side, losing its initial bilateral symmetry. Egg size 0.9 - 1.2 mm, larval length at hatching 2.7-3.1 mm.

Referência principal Upload your references | Referências | Coordenador | Colaboradores

Bauchot, M.-L., 1987. Poissons osseux. p. 891-1421. In W. Fischer, M.L. Bauchot and M. Schneider (eds.) Fiches FAO d'identification pour les besoins de la pêche. (rev. 1). Méditerranée et mer Noire. Zone de pêche 37. Vol. II. Commission des Communautés Européennes and FAO, Rome. (Ref. 3397)

Status na Lista Vermelha da UICN (Ref. 123251)


CITES (Ref. 123416)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Ameaça para os humanos

  Harmless





Uso pelos humanos

Pescarias: espécies comerciais; Aquacultura: espécies comerciais; peixe esportivo: sim; Aquário: Aquários públicos
FAO - Aquacultura: produção, perfil da espécie; pescarias: desembarques; Publication: search | FIRMS - Stock assessments | FishSource | Sea Around Us

Ferramentas

Relatórios especiais

Baixar XML

Fontes da internet

Banco de dados para Espécies Aliens/Invasivas | Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Checar Observador de Peixes (FishWatcher) | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes: Gênero, Espécies | DiscoverLife | DORIS | ECOTOX | FAO - Aquacultura: produção, perfil da espécie; pescarias: desembarques; Publication: search | Faunafri | Fishipedia | Fishtrace | GenBank: genoma, nucleotídeo | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Bases de dados nacionais | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | Aquários públicos | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Socotra Atlas | Árvore da vida | Wikipedia: Ir para, procura | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Registro zoológico

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 5.9 - 11.9, mean 9.4 °C (based on 239 cells).
Índice de diversidade filogenética (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5645   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01122 (0.00909 - 0.01385), b=3.06 (3.00 - 3.12), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
Nível Trófico (Ref. 69278):  4.4   ±0.0 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 4.7 (3.6 - 5.8) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 24 growth studies.
Resiliência (Ref. 120179):  médio(a), tempo mínimo de duplicação da população 1,4 - 4,4 anos (K=0.15-0.28; tm=3-5; tmax=26; Fec=5 million).
Prior r = 0.50, 95% CL = 0.33 - 0.74, Based on 9 stock assessments.
Vulnerabilidade (Ref. 59153):  Moderate vulnerability (43 of 100) .
Categoria de preço (Ref. 80766):   Very high.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 30.3 [13.5, 70.7] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.173 [0.071, 0.645] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.6 [17.2, 19.9] % ; Omega3 = 0.592 [0.259, 1.369] g/100g ; Selenium = 22.4 [5.7, 61.8] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 11.1 [2.5, 54.2] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.225 [0.107, 0.696] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.