Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes(genus, species) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; benthopelagic; pH range: 8.0 - ?; potamodromous (Ref. 51243). Tropical; 22°C - ? (Ref. 85713)
Asia: Pakistan, India, Nepal, Bangladesh, Myanmar and China; probably Sri Lanka (Ref. 4832). Also reported from Iran (Ref. 39702), Afghanistan (Ref. 41034) and Bhutan (Ref. 40882).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 75.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4832)
Adults inhabit torrential hill-streams in shallow waters (Ref. 4832). They migrate to warmer regions of lakes and streams during winter (Ref. 40974). Used commonly by anglers as bait for Raiamas bola and Tor putitora. Herbivorous (Refs. 40948, 56237). Highly esteemed as food.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Talwar, P.K. and A.G. Jhingran, 1991. Inland fishes of India and adjacent countries. vol 1. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam. 541 p. (Ref. 4832)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; bait: usually
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00933 (0.00510 - 0.01709), b=3.03 (2.88 - 3.18), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.0 ±0.00 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (63 of 100) .