(Various families in series Carangaria) > Sphyraenidae
Etymology: Sphyraena: Greek, sphyraina, -es = the name of a fish (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; marinhas; estuarina associadas(os) a recifes; intervalo de profundidade 1 - 100 m (Ref. 6949), usually 3 - 30 m (Ref. 40849). Subtropical; 42°N - 35°S, 180°W - 180°E (Ref. 55300)
Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and east coast of Africa to Hawaii and the Marquesas and Tuamoto islands. Western Atlantic: Massachusetts (USA), Bermuda, and throughout the Caribbean Sea to Brazil (Ref. 9626). Eastern Atlantic: Sierra Leone, Côte d'Ivoire, Togo, Nigeria, Senegal (Ref. 6949), Mauritania (Ref. 5377), St. Paul's Rocks (Ref. 13121), and São Tomé Island (Ref. 34088).
Comprimento de primeira maturação / Tamanho / Peso / Idade
Maturity: Lm 66.0, range 58 - ? cm
Max length : 200 cm TL macho/indeterminado; (Ref. 7251); common length : 140 cm TL macho/indeterminado; (Ref. 3692); peso máx. publicado: 50.0 kg (Ref. 6949)
Espinhos dorsais (total): 6; Raios dorsais (total): 9; Espinhos anais 2; Raios anais : 8. This species is distinguished by the following characters: a large body, large eyes; body depth 6.0-8.2 in SL; teeth erect and contiguous; no gill rakers on first gill arch, instead upper and lower gill arch with rough platelets which lack distinct spines; origin of first dorsal fin at level of the rear base of the pelvic fins; caudal fin emarginate with a pair of large lobes at posterior margin, except young less than 50 cm TL which have a forked caudal fin. Colour of body silvery; many oblique dark bars on upper half of body that do not across lateral line; caudal fin black with white tips; juveniles with a series of large dark blotches irregularly arranged on sides of body (Ref. 9768, 90102).
Found predominantly at or near the surface (Ref. 6949, 48637). Juvenile occurs among mangroves, estuaries and shallow sheltered inner reef areas; adult occurs in a wide range of habitats from murky inner harbors to open seas. Diurnal and solitary, but can also be found in small aggregations. Feeds on fishes, cephalopods and sometimes on shrimps (Ref. 9626, 48637). Sold fresh. Utilized also dried or salted (Ref. 9987). Although this species is ciguatoxic elsewhere throughout its range, it has not been reported to be poisonous in the eastern Atlantic (Ref. 6949, 48637). Rarely attacks humans, usually with one quick, fierce strike, which, although serious, is rarely fatal. The world's record on hook and line is a 5.5-ft. fish taken in the Bahamas that weighed 103 lbs. (Ref. 13442). Caught by handline, set nets, and other fishing gear (Ref. 9768).
Ciclo de vida ou comportamento de acasalamento
Maturidade | Reprodução | Desova | Ovos | Fecundidade | Larvas
Daget, J., 1986. Sphyraenidae. p. 350-351. In J. Daget, J.-P. Gosse and D.F.E. Thys van den Audenaerde (eds.) Check-list of the freshwater fishes of Africa (CLOFFA). ISNB, Brussels; MRAC, Tervuren; and ORSTOM, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 4339)
Status na Lista Vermelha da UICN (Ref. 125652)
Ameaça para os humanos
Traumatogenic (Ref. 4690)
Uso pelos humanos
Pescarias: pouco comercial; peixe esportivo: sim; Aquário: Aquários públicos
Fontes da internet
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 21.7 - 28.9, mean 27.2 °C (based on 2020 cells).
Índice de diversidade filogenética (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00851 (0.00710 - 0.01020), b=2.93 (2.89 - 2.97), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Nível Trófico (Ref. 69278
): 4.5 ±0.6 se; based on diet studies.
Resiliência (Ref. 120179
): Baixo, tempo mínimo de duplicação da população 4,5 - 14 anos (K=0.09-0.11; tm=2-4).
Prior r = 0.31, 95% CL = 0.20 - 0.48, Based on 2 stock assessments.
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Very high vulnerability (79 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): Moderate to high vulnerability (52 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 8.98 [3.05, 25.12] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.417 [0.167, 1.487] mg/100g ; Protein = 20 [18, 22] % ; Omega3 = 0.265 [0.098, 0.720] g/100g ; Selenium = 21.3 [5.8, 64.0] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 21.9 [3.8, 179.3] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.421 [0.229, 0.851] mg/100g (wet weight);