分類 / Names
共通名の | 類義語 | Catalog of Fishes(部類, 種) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; 海; 汽水性の 関連する礁; 海洋回遊性 (Ref. 51243); 深さの範囲 30 - 160 m (Ref. 89707), usually - m (Ref. ). Subtropical; 0°C - ; 40°N - 27°S, 98°W - 38°W (Ref. 5222)
Western Atlantic: North Carolina, USA (with juveniles occurring as far north as Massachusetts) to the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Rare in Bermuda; one record in Cuba; also reported from eastern Brazil.
Length at first maturity / サイズ / 重さ / 年齢
Maturity: Lm 63.1, range 51 - ? cm
Max length : 145 cm TL オス/雌雄の選別がない; (Ref. 40637); common length : 50.0 cm TL オス/雌雄の選別がない; (Ref. 3708); 最大公表体重: 36.5 kg (Ref. 40637); 最大記録サイズ: 31 年 (Ref. 118445)
背面の脊椎 (合計): 11; 背鰭 (合計): 16-18; 肛門の骨 3; 臀鰭: 10 - 12. Distinguished by the following characteristics: adult females and juveniles are generally brownish grey with dark vermiculations; camouflage phase has 5 dark brown saddles separated by short white bars below the dorsal fin; large males sometimes display a "black-belly" and "black-back" phase; black-belly phase is mostly pale grey, with faint dark reticulations below soft dorsal fin, belly and ventral part of the body above anal fin black, as are margin of the soft dorsal fin, central rear part of caudal fin and rear margins of pectoral and pelvic fins; depth of body contained 3.0-3.5 times in SL; head length 2.5-2.7 times in SL; convex interorbital area; angle of preopercle produced into a rounded lobe bearing enlarged serrae; posterior nostrils of adults much larger than anterior ones; smooth lateral body scales, except those covering pectoral fin (Ref. 89707).
Juveniles occur in estuaries and seagrass beds; adults are usually found offshore on rocky bottom (rarely to 152 m), occasionally inshore on rocky or grassy bottom. It is the most common grouper on rocky ledges in the eastern Gulf of Mexico. Adults are either solitary or in groups of 5 to 50 individuals; feed mainly on fishes, some crabs, shrimps, and cephalopods. Juveniles (less than 20 cm) feed mainly on crustaceans that live in shallow grass beds.
Life cycle and mating behavior
成熟 | 繁殖 | 放精 | 卵 | 生産力 | 幼生
Indeterminate, multiple spawner (Ref. 86690).
Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)
水産業: 高い商業の; ゲームフィッシュ: はい
協力者画像Stamps, Coins Misc.音シガテラ（食中毒の名前）速度泳ぐ 型式カマOtoliths脳視覚
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 18.3 - 27.1, mean 23.8 °C (based on 123 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01122 (0.00659 - 0.01911), b=3.04 (2.90 - 3.18), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
栄養段階 (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.4 se; based on diet studies.
回復力 (Ref. 120179
): 手段, １．４年～４．４年の倍増期間の最小個体群 (K=0.12-0.16; tm=3-8; tmax=16; Fec>10,000).
Prior r = 0.51, 95% CL = 0.34 - 0.77, Based on 1 stock assessment.
弱み (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (62 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 16.5 [7.2, 33.6] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.917 [0.444, 1.725] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.1 [16.0, 20.0] % ; Omega3 = 0.366 [0.160, 0.882] g/100g ; Selenium = 24.1 [10.0, 57.1] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 46.8 [10.1, 209.9] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.739 [0.431, 1.370] mg/100g (wet weight);