Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; marino associati a barriera corallina; distribuzione batimetrica 1 - 80 m (Ref. 5217). Subtropical; 42°N - 35°S, 98°W - 28°W
Western Atlantic: North Carolina, USA, the northern Gulf of Mexico and the Bahamas southward to Uruguay. Occurrence in western Caribbean is doubtful (Ref. 26938).
Length at first maturity / Size / Peso / Age
Maturity: Lm 12.9  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 30.0 cm TL maschio/sesso non determinato; (Ref. 7251); common length : 16.0 cm TL maschio/sesso non determinato; (Ref. 5217)
Spine dorsali (totale): 10; Raggi dorsali molli (totale): 12; Spine anali 3; Raggi anali molli: 7 - 8. Body pale brown dorsally with several vertical dark brown bars, becoming white ventrally; dorsal fin dusky with longitudinal yellow lines; pectoral, pelvic and anal fins dusky; caudal fin dusky with small yellow blotches (Ref. 13608). Preopercle has spines radiating from 2 centers (Ref. 26938).
Inhabits bays, coastal grassy areas and shallow banks. Solitary (Ref. 26340) and retreats into shelter when frightened (Ref. 9710). Neither opercular spine nor anterolateral glandular grooves with venom gland is present (Ref. 57406). Synchronously hermaphroditic. Popular as a pan fish despite its small size.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturità | Riproduzione | Deposizione | Uova | Fecundity | Larve
Simultaenous hermaphrodite. The gonad contains ovarian and testicular tissue separated by a thin basement membrane, with no means of internal self-fertilization.
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Pesca: commerciale; Pesce da pesca sportiva: si
BibliografiaAcquacolturaProfilo di acquacolturaVarietàGeneticaFrequenze allelicheEreditarietàMalattieElaborazioneMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 21.9 - 28, mean 25.2 °C (based on 542 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5002 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00912 (0.00733 - 0.01135), b=3.10 (3.05 - 3.15), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.5 ±0.0 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 3.8 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilienza (Ref. 120179
): Alto, tempo minimo di raddoppiamento della popolazione meno di 15 mesi (K=0.29-1.5; tm=1.01).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (15 of 100) .