Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; marina bottenlevande. Tropical
Northwest Pacific: southern Japan to the China seas. Possibly in Thailand (Ref. 9918). Reported from India (Ref. 45255).
Length at first maturity / Size / Vikt / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 55 - 59 cm
Max length : 100.0 cm TL hane/ej könsbestämd; (Ref. 637)
Inhabits sandy or muddy bottom in shallow waters (Ref. 11230). Feeds on benthic animals. Spines covered with skin with poisonous glands. Ovoviviparous. Used as 'kamaboko' material (Ref. 637). Caught often by demersal trawl, trammel and gillnet fisheries, and occasionally using tangle nets.Utilized for its meat, but of limited value due to its typically small size (Ref.58048).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Könsmognad | Reproduktion | Lek | Ägg | Fecundity | Larver
Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205). Gives birth to ~3 pups; born between 20-22 cm WD (Ref.58048).
Masuda, H., K. Amaoka, C. Araga, T. Uyeno and T. Yoshino, 1984. The fishes of the Japanese Archipelago. Vol. 1. Tokai University Press, Tokyo, Japan. 437 p. (text). (Ref. 559)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
MedarbetareBilderStamps, Coins Misc.LjudCiguateraHastighetSimsättGälytaOtolithsHjärnstorlekSyn
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 17.9 - 29.1, mean 28.1 °C (based on 1500 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00871 (0.00383 - 0.01980), b=3.05 (2.84 - 3.26), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trofisk nivå (Ref. 69278
): 3.8 ±0.61 se; based on food items.
Resiliens (Ref. 120179
): Mycket låg, lägsta populationsfördubblingstid mer än 14 år (Fec assumed to be <10).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (42 of 100) .