Gymnura japonica, Japanese butterflyray

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Gymnura japonica (Temminck & Schlegel, 1850)

Japanese butterflyray
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Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Gymnura japonica   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Gymnura japonica (Japanese butterflyray)
Gymnura japonica
Picture by The Fish Database of Taiwan

Klassifizierung / Names Namen | Synonyme | Catalog of Fishes(Gattung, Arten) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii (Haie und Rochen) (sharks and rays) > Myliobatiformes (Stingrays) > Gymnuridae (Butterfly rays)
Etymology: Gymnura: Greek, gymnos = naked + Greek, oura = tail (Ref. 45335).  More on authors: Temminck & Schlegel.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ökologie

; seewasser demersal.   Tropical

Verbreitung Länder | FAO Gebiete | Ecosystems | Vorkommen | Point map | Einführungen | Faunafri

Northwest Pacific: southern Japan to the China seas. Possibly in Thailand (Ref. 9918). Reported from India (Ref. 45255).

Length at first maturity / Size / Gewicht / Alter

Maturity: Lm ?, range 55 - 59 cm
Max length : 100.0 cm TL Männchen/unbestimmt; (Ref. 637)

Biologie     Fachlexikon (Englisch) (z.B. epibenthic)

Inhabits sandy or muddy bottom in shallow waters (Ref. 11230). Feeds on benthic animals. Spines covered with skin with poisonous glands. Ovoviviparous. Used as 'kamaboko' material (Ref. 637). Caught often by demersal trawl, trammel and gillnet fisheries, and occasionally using tangle nets.Utilized for its meat, but of limited value due to its typically small size (Ref.58048).

Life cycle and mating behavior Geschlechtsreife | Fortpflanzung | Ablaichen | Eier | Fecundity | Larven

Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205). Gives birth to ~3 pups; born between 20-22 cm WD (Ref.58048).

Hauptreferenz Upload your references | Referenzen | Koordinator : McEachran, John | Partner

Masuda, H., K. Amaoka, C. Araga, T. Uyeno and T. Yoshino, 1984. The fishes of the Japanese Archipelago. Vol. 1. Tokai University Press, Tokyo, Japan. 437 p. (text). (Ref. 559)

IUCN Rote Liste Status (Ref. 123251)

  Daten mangelhaft (DD) ; Date assessed: 27 June 2007

CITES (Ref. 123416)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Bedrohung für Menschen

  Venomous (Ref. 637)





Nutzung durch Menschen

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Internet Quellen

Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | FishWatcher Einträge suchen | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes: Gattung, Arten | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | FAO - Publication: search | Faunafri | Fishipedia | Fishtrace | GenBank: Genom, nucleotide | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Nationale Datenbanken | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Socotra Atlas | Tree of Life | Wikipedia: Gehe zu, Suchen | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 17.9 - 29.1, mean 28.1 °C (based on 1500 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00871 (0.00383 - 0.01980), b=3.05 (2.84 - 3.26), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic level (Ref. 69278):  3.8   ±0.61 se; based on food items.
Widerstandsfähigkeit (Ref. 120179):  sehr niedrig, Verdopplung der Population dauert mehr als 14 Jahre. (Fec assumed to be <10).
Verwundbarkeit (Ref. 59153):  Moderate vulnerability (42 of 100) .