Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; benthopelagic; potamodromous (Ref. 51243). Subtropical; 18°S - 27°S
Africa: Limpopo River, Incomati and Usuto-Pongolo basins (Ref. 1440). Also known from Lufira River, upper Congo River basin, in Democratic Republic of the Congo (Ref. 96560).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 40.0 cm FL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2801); max. published weight: 3.0 kg (Ref. 7248)
Occurs in the warmer reaches of rivers, particularly in sandy stretches (Ref. 1440). Feeds on detritus, algae, and small invertebrates. An active fish, leaps at barriers when migrating upstream in swollen rivers to breed in summer. Sexually mature at 15 cm TL (Ref. 7248).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Reid, G.M., 1985. A revision of African species of Labeo (Pisces: Cyprinidae) and a re-definition of the genus. Verlag von J. Cramer, Braunschweig. 322 p. (Ref. 1440)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: ; gamefish: yes
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00955 (0.00344 - 0.02648), b=3.00 (2.76 - 3.24), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.4 ±0.18 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (34 of 100).