Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; marino associati a barriera corallina; distribuzione batimetrica 2 - 50 m (Ref. 9680), usually 3 - 20 m (Ref. 40849). Subtropical; 35°N - 31°S, 180°W - 180°E (Ref. 55213)
Circumtropical. Eastern Pacific: San Diego, California, USA to Chile, including the Galapagos Islands (Ref. 37955). Western Atlantic: Bermuda, Massachusetts (USA), and northern Gulf of Mexico to Brazil (Ref. 7251). Eastern Atlantic: 30°N to 23°S (Ref. 6951). Western Indian Ocean: Red Sea to Madagascar, Reunion and Mauritius (Ref. 33390). The reports in the Mediterranean Sea are doubtful (Ref. 50345).
Size / Peso / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 91.0 cm TL maschio/sesso non determinato; (Ref. 2850); common length : 40.0 cm TL maschio/sesso non determinato; (Ref. 26999); peso massimo pubblicato: 2.8 kg (Ref. 40637)
Spine dorsali (totale): 0; Raggi dorsali molli (totale): 14-17; Spine anali 0; Raggi anali molli: 14 - 16. Body robust; teeth united in each jaw but without a central division; body covered with long, sharp spines, folded backwards when body not inflated; 16 to 20 spines between snout and dorsal fin; dorsal region of caudal peduncle spiny; back, flanks and fins light brown with numerous dark spots; belly spiny (Ref. 55763). Spines long. Body grayish tan, with small black spots, but no large dark blotches. Belly white, surrounded by dusky ring (Ref. 26938). About 20 spines in an approximate row between snout and dorsal fin (Ref. 13442).
Occur in lagoon and seaward reefs to at least 50 m. Commonly seen in caves and holes in shallow reefs (Ref. 26938, 48637). Juveniles to about 20 cm are pelagic. Adults benthic (Ref. 30573). Solitary and nocturnal that feed on hard shelled invertebrates like sea urchins, gastropods, and hermit crabs (Ref. 9680). Generally common (Ref. 9710). Not normally used as food (Ref. 3717). Reached a life-span of 10 years and a length of 69 cm in the McGinty Aquarium (E. Dashiell, pers. comm 2004), suggesting a preliminary K=0.12.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturità | Riproduzione | Deposizione | Uova | Fecundity | Larve
Randall, J.E., G.R. Allen and R.C. Steene, 1990. Fishes of the Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, Hawaii. 506 p. (Ref. 2334)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Poisonous to eat (Ref. 4690)
Pesca: scarso interesse commerciale; Acquario: Commerciale
BibliografiaAcquacolturaProfilo di acquacolturaVarietàGeneticaFrequenze allelicheEreditarietàMalattieElaborazioneMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 23.3 - 29, mean 27.4 °C (based on 1822 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5313 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.08913 (0.04408 - 0.18020), b=2.76 (2.57 - 2.95), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.0 se; based on diet studies.
Resilienza (Ref. 120179
): Basso, tempo minimo di raddoppiamento della popolazione 4.5 - 14 anni (tmax>10; preliminary K=0.12).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (48 of 100) .