Larvae Information Summary for  Gadus morhua
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Main Ref: Russell, F.S. 1976
Yolk-sac larvae
  max min mod Ref.
Length at birth (mm) 5.71 3.3    
Preanal L. % TL 37.6 34.8 35.3  
Place of development planktonic
Larval area Northeastern Atlantic (British coasts); Northwestern Atlantic (Delaware Bay)
Yolk-sac ovoid   unpigmented Ref:  
Yolk unsegmented Oil globules no oil globule
Rows on tail no rows
Other melanophores on tail two dorso-ventral clusters or bands
Melanophores on head + trunk melanophores on head + trunk
Two postanal bars (Ref. 37). Three ventral accumulations of pigment on tail, including one on notochord tip; two dorsal accumulations of pigment on tail; ventral accumulations longer than dorsal and extend farther posteriorly (Ref. 68). Vent opens at side of finfold (not at margin); gut short and coiled (Ref. 68).
Post larvae
Striking feature none
Striking shape lateral normal (not striking) dorsal normal (not striking)
Striking feature none
Shape of gut triangular
Gas bladder   early invisible late invisible
Spinal armature   early no spines late no spines
Pigmentation early
Rows on tail dorsal + ventral row
Other melanophores on tail tail with single melanophore
Melanophores on head + trunk melanophores on head + trunk
Pigmentation late
Rows on tail dorsal + lateral + ventral row
Other melanophores on tail tail partly covered with melanophores
Melanophores on head + trunk melanophores on head + trunk
Urostyle region   early pigmented late pigmented
Peritoneum covered with melanophores
Pectorals normal without melanophores
Pelvics normal (i.e. small or absent) without melanophores
Yolk sac absorbed at about 4.5 mm (Ref. 7135). Lancet-shaped base of caudal fin. 1 to 3 ventral caudal melanophores. The ventral row of melanophores generally extends farther back than the dorsal (in contrast to G. virens) (Ref. 37). Pelvic fins thoracic, elongate; no head spines present during larval development (Ref. 68). Young 15.0 to 30.0 mm recognizable by vent under 2nd dorsal fin and dense pigmentation. Pigmentation: pigment patterns usually well-developed at hatching (Ref. 68). At 7.0 to 10.0 mm, pigment bars fuse and a median band forms. At 10.0 to 20.0 mm, pigment extends to the tail. Sequence of fin formation: At 20.0 mm, dorsal and anal fins have full complement of rays.
Meristic characters
  max min mod Ref.
Total number of vertebrae 20 17 18 39467
  L 1st feeding Ref. Months of presence of larvae    Ref. 
max 5.1   Jan Feb Mar Apr
min 4.5   May Jun Jul Aug
mod 4.8   Sep Oct Nov Dec
Water parameters     Metric characters
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