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Larvae Information Summary for  Synodus lucioceps
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Main Ref: Stevens, E.G. and H.G. Moser 1996
Yolk-sac larvae
  max min mod Ref.
Length at birth (mm)     3 35938
Preanal L. % TL 74 61    
Place of development planktonic
Larval area California Current region
Yolk-sac     pigmented Ref:  
Yolk unsegmented Oil globules no oil globule
Rows on tail ventral + lateral row
Other melanophores on tail no other melanophores
Melanophores on head + trunk melanophores on trunk
Pigmentation: 6 ventrolateral patches from pectoral fin base to near notochord tip; scattered over head and yolk sac.
Post larvae
Striking feature none
Striking shape lateral normal (not striking) dorsal compressed
Striking feature none
Shape of gut elongated
Gas bladder   early   late  
Spinal armature   early no spines late no spines
Pigmentation early
Rows on tail no rows
Other melanophores on tail tail with single melanophore
Melanophores on head + trunk melanophores on trunk
Pigmentation late
Rows on tail no rows
Other melanophores on tail one dorso-ventral cluster or band
Melanophores on head + trunk melanophores on head + trunk
Urostyle region   early unpigmented late unpigmented
Peritoneum with row of melanophores
Pectorals normal melanophores at fin base
Pelvics fin rays only melanophores at fin base
Elongate gut; rounded head in preflexion larvae; large round ventrolateral blotches increasing from 4 at hatching to 7 at flexion stage; single ventral postanal blotch; hypural pigment; diamond-shaped lateral blotches in transformation specimens; large size (50-64 mm) at transformation; distinctive peritoneal patches (even); preanal finfold; deeper body than other Synodus species. Pigmentation: Preflexion: ventrolateral blotches over intestine increase from 4 to 6; 1 postanal median ventral blotch and 1 at hypural region. Flexion-postflexion: 7 ventrolateral blotches over intestine; on hypural margin; on anal fin base at about 25 mm; on hindbrain and cerebellum at about 40 mm; lateral blotch anterior to caudal fin. Transformation: 8 lateral blotches, some diamond shaped; opercular region; brain covered. Sequence of fin development: caudal, anal, pectorals, dorsal, pelvics.
  L 1st feeding Ref. Months of presence of larvae
max     Jan Feb Mar Apr
min   May Jun Jul Aug
mod     Sep Oct Nov Dec
Water parameters     Metric characters
Entered by: Luna,Susan M. - 01.02.00
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