Reproduction of Nerophis lumbriciformis
Document source:
Main Ref. Monteiro, N., V.C. Almada, A.M. Santos and M.N. Vieira, 2001
Mode dioecism
Fertilization in brood pouch or similar structure
Mating type
Spawning frequency one clear seasonal peak per year
Spawning aggregation Ref.  
Batch spawner Yes.   Ref.  Breder, C.M. and D.E. Rosen, 1966
Reproductive guild bearers
external brooders
Parental Care paternal
Description of life cycle and mating behavior Males brood their offspring attached to their flattened ventral surface. All throughout the gestation period, parental care is strictly paternal. No further care is needed once the newborn juveniles become free-swimming (Ref. 42359). Sex roles are reversed in this species. The females are the courting sex and change color more intensely than the males (Ref. 42363). Unlike in other pipefishes, the courtship ritual takes place in close contact with the substratum which may characterise adaptation to typical intertidal conditions (Ref. 42363).
Search for more references on reproduction Scirus
(e.g. 9948)
( e.g. cephalopods )
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