Reproduction of Zoarces americanus
Document source:
Main Ref. Steimle, F.W., W.W. Morse, P.L. Berrien, D.L. Johnson and C.A. Zetlin, 1999
Mode dioecism
Fertilization internal (oviduct)
Mating type monogamy:
Spawning frequency
Spawning aggregation Ref.  
Batch spawner Ref.  
Reproductive guild guarders
Parental Care maternal
Description of life cycle and mating behavior Eggs are laid in gelatinous masses guarded by one or both parents until hatching (Ref. 35432). However, more recent evidence suggests that care is provided by the female alone (Ref. 104883).
Search for more references on reproduction Scirus
(e.g. 9948)
( e.g. cephalopods )
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