Reproduction of Alosa alosa
Document source:
Main Ref. Allardi, J. and P. Keith, 1991
Mode dioecism
Fertilization external
Mating type
Spawning frequency once in a lifetime
Spawning aggregation Ref.  
Batch spawner Ref.  Teletchea, F., A. Fostier, E. Kamler, J-N. Gardeur, P-Y. Le Bail, B. Jalabert and P. Fontaine, 2009
Reproductive guild nonguarders
open water/substratum egg scatterers
Parental Care none
Description of life cycle and mating behavior Adults in the sea begin to move towards the coast in February and congregate near or in estuaries (Ref. 10536). They ascend rivers in April and May when water temperature is 9-12 °C, peaking at 13-16 °C. Adults may migrate up to 700 km from the sea into major rivers and occasionally into the largest tributaries of these rivers to spawn (Ref. 10536). Males migrate upriver at 3-9 years; females first reproduce 1-3 years later than males. Gametogenesis occurs during spawning migration. Males arrive first in the upper reaches and occupy appropriate spawning sites, with females arriving 1-2 weeks later (Ref. 10536). Spawning sites are usually shallow areas (<1.5 m depth) of rivers near a confluence with strong currents and clean gravel bottoms (Refs. 188, 10536, 59043). Spawning occurs at night (over several nights), in large and very noisy schools that form near the surface.when water temperature reaches at least 15 °C and is believed to be optimal between 22-24 °C. (Ref. 88171). Coupling happens side by side, thrashing caudal fins on water surface and swimming in circles while expulsing eggs and sperms in the surrounding water. Eggs are fertilized in mid-water and then sink to the gravel bottom. Eggs hatch after 4-8 days (22-24 °C) (Ref. 89630). After spawning, adults return to the sea but many die before reaching it (Ref. 188, 51442, 59043). Only 5-6 % of the adults spawn more than once in their lifetime (Ref. 89655). After 3-4 months juveniles (8-12 cm length) move towards the sea until mature (Ref. 10536). Individual fish apparently return to their natal spawning site (Ref. 59043). Also Refs. 5744, 5745.
Search for more references on reproduction Scirus
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