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References using Gnathonemus petersii
Ref No. Description Page
000205  Breder, C.M. and D.E. Rosen,1966 Modes of reproduction in fishes. T.F.H. Publications, Neptune City, New Jersey. 941 p. 145-146;636-637
000246  Jackson, P.B.N.,1961 The fishes of Northern Rhodesia. A check list of indigenous species. The Government Printer, Lusaka. 140 p.
001672  Riehl, R. and H.A. Baensch,1991 Aquarien Atlas. Band. 1. Melle: Mergus, Verlag für Natur-und Heimtierkunde, Germany. 992 p. 854
001878  Boulenger, G.A.,1909 Catalogue of the fresh-water fishes of Africa in the British Museum (Natural History). Volume I. Printed by order of the Trustees, London. 373 p. 99;fig.79
001879  Boulenger, G.A.,1901 Les poissons du bassin du Congo. Bruxelles. 532 p. 99
001880  Boulenger, G.A.,1916 Catalogue of the fresh-water fishes of Africa in the British Museum (Natural History). Volume IV. London. 392 p. 164
002209  Hinegardner, R. and D.E. Rosen,1972 Cellular DNA content and the evolution of teleostean fishes. Am. Nat. 106(951):621-644.
002266  Poll, M.,1948 Poissons recueillis au Katanga par H.J. Bredo. Bull. Mus. R. Hist. Nat. Belg. 24(21):24 p. 7
002915  Bigorne, R.,1990 Mormyridae. p. 122-184. In C. Lévêque, D. Paugy and G.G. Teugels (eds.) Faune des poissons d'eaux saumâtres d'Afrique de l'Ouest. tome 1. Faune Trop. 28. Musée Royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Tervuren, and ORSTOM, Paris.
003203  Gosse, J.-P.,1984 Mormyridae. p. 63-122. In J. Daget, J.-P. Gosse and D.F.E. Thys van den Audenaerde (eds.) Check-list of the freshwater fishes of Africa (CLOFFA). ORSTOM, Paris and MRAC, Tervuren. Vol. 1. 72-73
004517  Hureau, J.-C.,1991 La base de données GICIM : Gestion informatisée des collections ichthyologiques du Muséum. p. 225-227. In Atlas Préliminaire des Poissons d'Eau Douce de France. Conseil Supérieur de la Pêche, Ministère de l'Environnement, CEMAGREF et Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, Paris.
004537  Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea and W.B. Scott,1991 World fishes important to North Americans. Exclusive of species from the continental waters of the United States and Canada. Am. Fish. Soc. Spec. Publ. (21):243 p.
007020  Mills, D. and G. Vevers,1989 The Tetra encyclopedia of freshwater tropical aquarium fishes. Tetra Press, New Jersey. 208 p. 53
008973  Vasil'ev, V.P.,1980 Chromosome numbers in fish-like vertebrates and fish. J. Ichthyol. 20(3):1-38. 6
009363  Uyeno, T., R.R. Miller and J.M. Fitzsimons,1983 Karyology of the Cyprinodontoid fishes of the Mexican family Goodeidae. Copeia 1983(2):497-510.
010011  Møller, P.R.,1995 Electric fishes: history and behavior. Chapman & Hall, London. 584 p. 376;244-250;362
010311  Fritzsch, B. and P. Moller,1995 A history of electroreception. p. 39-55. In P. Moller (ed.) Electric fishes:history and behavior. Fish and Fisheries Series 17. Chapman & Hall, London. 51-53
010469  Prabhakar, A. and R.E. Landsman,1994 Lead alters the waveform and frequency of the electric organ discharge in Gnathonemus petersii (Mormyriformes, Teleostei). Soc. Neurosci. Abstr. 20:372.
010764  Landsman, R.E.,1995 Sources of plasticity in behavior and its physiology: sex, hormones, environment and the captivity model. p.303-343. In P. Moller (ed.) Electric Fishes:history and behavior. Fish and Fisheries series 117. Chapman & Hall, London. 310
010766  Landsman, R.E.,1993 Sex differences in external morphology and electric organ discharges in imported Gnathonemus petersii (Mormyriformes). Anim. Behav. 46:417-429.
010830  McCormick, C.A. and A.N. Popper,1984 Auditory sensitivity and psychophysical tuning curves in the elephant nose fish, Gnathonemus petersii. J. Comp. Physiol. 155A:753-761.
010835  Ciali, S.,1988 Spectral sensitivity and retinal anatomy of the weakly electric fish, Gnathonemus petersii. PhD thesis, The City University of New York , New York. 170 p. (see also Psychol. Diss. Abstr. Int. 50, 2197-B, 1989).
012236  Nilsson, G.E.,1996 Brain and body oxygen requirements of Gnathonemus petersii, a fish with an exceptionally large brain. J. Exp. Biol. 199:603-607.
012818  Anonymous,1997 Fish registrations within the museum database of the Vertebrate Section of the Royal Museum for Central Africa. MRAC, Tervuren, Belgium.
013331  Paugy, D., K. Traoré and P.S. Diouf,1994 Faune ichtyologique des eaux douces d'Afrique de l'Ouest. p.35-66. In G.G. Teugels, J.F. Guégan and J.J. Albaret (eds.) Biological diversity of African fresh-and brackish water fishes. Geographical overviews presented at the PARADI Symposium, Senegal, 15-20 November 1993. Ann. Mus. R. Afr. Centr., Sci. Zool., 275:177 p. ann.
013371  Riehl, R. and H.A. Baensch,1996 Aquarien Atlas, Band 1. 10th edition. Mergus Verlag GmBH, Melle, Germany. 992 p. 856
029528  Uyeno, T.,1973 A comparative study of chromosomes in the teleostean fish order Osteoglossiformes. Jap. J. Ichthyol. 20(4):211-217.
030491  Schliewen, U.K.,1992 Aquarium fish. Barron's Education Series, Incorporated. 159 p. 854
030503  Rass, T.S.,1983 Fish. Vol. 4, Life of animals. V.E. Sokolov (ed.), Moscow: Prosveschenie. 575p.
031256  Olaosebikan, B.D. and A. Raji,1998 Field guide to Nigerian freshwater fishes. Federal College of Freshwater Fisheries Technology, New Bussa, Nigeria. 106 p. 85
031402  Swedish Museum of Natural History,1999 Fish collection database of the Naturhistoriska riksmuseet (Swedish Museum of Natural History). Ichthyology Section, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden.
031517  Wu, H.L., K.-T. Shao and C.F. Lai (eds.),1999 Latin-Chinese dictionary of fishes names. The Sueichan Press, Taiwan. 1028 p.
031982  Anonymous,1999 Fish collection database of the Natural History Museum, London (formerly British Museum of Natural History (BMNH)). Natural History Museum, London (formerly British Museum of Natural History (BMNH)).
034370  Klinkhardt, M, M. Tesche and H. Greven,1995 Database of fish chromosomes. Westarp Wissenschaften. 39
035508  Anonymous,2000 The icthyological collection of the Zoological Museum Hamburg (ZMH). Division of Ichthyology and Herpetology, Zoological Museum Hamburg (ZMH).
036670  Anonymous,2000 Fish collection database of the J.L.B. Smith Institute of Ichthyology, Grahamstown, South Africa. J.L.B. Smith Institute of Ichthyology, Grahamstown, South Africa.
038732  Anonymous,2001 Fish collection database of the National Museum of Natural History (Smithsonian Institution). Smithsonian Institution-Division of Fishes.
041414  Anonymous,2002 Fish collection database of the American Museum of Natural History. American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West , NY 10024-5192, USA.
041585  Poll, M.,1959 Recherches sur la faune ichthyologique de la région du Stanley-Pool. Ann. Mus. R. Congo Belge, Sér. In-8°, Sci. Zool., 71:75-174. 121
041590  David, L. and M. Poll,1937 Contribution à la faune ichthyologique du Congo Belge: collections du Dr. H. Schouteden (1924-1926) et d'autres récolteurs. Ann. Mus. Congo Belge, Zool. (1), 3(5):189-294. 204
041594  Nichols, J.T. and L. Griscom,1917 Fresh-water fishes of the Congo basin obtained by the American Museum Congo Expedition, 1909-1915. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 37(25):653-756. 670
045441  Gosse, J.-P.,1968 Les poissons du bassin de l'Ubangi. Mus. R. Afr. Centr., Doc. Zool., 13:56 p. 12
045616  Poll, M.,1933 Contribution à la faune ichthyologique du Katanga. Ann. Mus. Congo Belge, Zool. (1), 3(3):101-152. 113
046233  Daget, J.,1978 Contribution à la faune de la République Unie du Cameroun. Poissons du Dja, du Boumba et du Ngoko. Cybium 3(3):35-52. 38
046901  Steindachner, F.,1914 Zur Fischfauna des Dscha, eines sekundären Nebenflusses des Kongo, im Bezirke Molundu, Kamerun. Denkschr. Akad. Wiss. Wien 89:1-64. 5
047438  Anonymous,2003 Fish collection of the Royal Ontario Museum. Royal Ontario Museum.
048502  Bassleer, G.,2003 The new ilustrated guide to fish diseases in ornamental tropical and pond fish. Bassleer Biofish, Stationstraat 130, 2235 Westmeerbeek, Belgium, 1st Edition, 232 p. 150;ill.684
051054  Hanel, L. and J. Novák,2001 ?eské názvy zivo?ich? V. Ryby a rybovití obratlovci (Pisces) II., nozdratí (Sarcopterygii), paprskoploutví (Actinopterygii) [chrupav?ití (Chondrostei), kostnatí (Neopterygii): kostlíni (Semionotiformes) - bezostní (Clupeiformes)]. Národní muzeum (zoologické odd?leí), Praha.
051193  Vivien, J.,1991 Faune du Cameroun. Guide des mammifères et poissons. GICAM et Ministère de la Coopération et du Développement. 271 p. 99
051471  Carl, H.,2003 Danish fish names. Zoological Museum of Copenhagen. Unpublished.
051936  Mahy, G.,1979 Biologie et écologie du lac Kivu. Actualisation. Synthèse critique et prévision des connaissances actuelles sur le lac Kivu. Étud. Rwandaises 12(3):1-108. 48
052397  Mdaihli, M., T. du Feu and J.S.O. Ayeni,2003 Fisheries in the southern border zone of Takamanda Forest Reserve, Cameroon. p. 141-154. In J.A. Comiskey and T.C.H. Sunderland (eds). Takamanda: the Biodiversity of an African forest. SI/MAB Ser. 8. 182 p. 154
052861  Oti, E.E.,2003 Studies on the ichthyofauna of Ehoma Floodplain, Afikpo Eastern Nigeria. p. 123-131. In M.L.D. Palomares, B. Samb, T. Diouf, J.M. Vakily and D. Pauly (eds.) Fish biodiversity: local studies as basis for global inferences. ACP-EU Fish. Res. Rep. 14:281 p. 126
052870  Mwape, L.M.,2003 Bemba local names of lake fishes in northern Zambia. p. 246-249. In M.L.D. Palomares, B. Samb, T. Diouf, J.M. Vakily and D. Pauly (eds.) Fish biodiversity: local studies as basis for global inferences. ACP-EU Fish. Res. Rep. 14:281 p. 247
055380  Ma, X., X. Bangxi, W. Yindong and W. Mingxue,2003 Intentionally introduced and transferred fishes in China's inland waters. Asian Fish. Sci. 16(3&4):279-290. 280
057864  BFAR,2006 List of ornamental fish species introduced to the Philippines through NAIA. Unpublished.
058108  Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences,2003 Chinese aquatic germplasm resources database.
075549  FAO-FIES,2008 Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Information System (ASFIS) species list. Retrieved from, 29 April 2008.
081274  Bigorne, R.,2003 Mormyridae. p. 155-222. In D. Paugy, C. Lévêque and G.G Teugels (eds.) The fresh and brackish water fishes of West Africa Volume 1. Coll. faune et flore tropicales 40. Institut de recherche de développement, Paris, France, Muséum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris, France and Musée royal de l'Afrique Central, Tervuren, Belgium, 457p.
081635  Hopkins, C.D., S. Lavoué and J.P. Sullivan,2007 Mormyridae. p. 219-334. In M.L.J. Stiassny, G.G. Teugels and C.D. Hopkins (eds.) The fresh and brackish water fishes of Lower Guinea, West-Central Africa. Volume I. Collection Faune et Flore tropicales 42. Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, Paris, France, Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France, and Musée Royal de l’Afrique Centrale, Tervuren, Belgium. 800 pp. 279;fig.12.49
083882  FAO-FIES,2010 Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Information System (ASFIS) species list. Retrieved from, March 2010.
090062  FAO-FIES,2012 Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Information System (ASFIS) species list. Retrieved from, March 2012.
093897  Monsembula Iyaba, R.J.C. and M.L.J. Stiassny,2013 Fishes of the Salonga National Park (Congo basin, central Africa): a list of species collected in the Luilaka, Salonga, and Yenge Rivers (Equateur Province, Democratic Republic of Congo). Check List 9(2):246-256. 251
095632  FAO-FIES,2014 Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Information System (ASFIS) species list. Retrieved from, April 2014.
101110  FAO-FIES,2015 Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Information System (ASFIS) species list. Retrieved from, [accessed 13/04/2015].
101288  Kaufman, J.A., C.M. Hladik and P. Pasquet,2003 On the expensive-tissue hypothesis: independent support from highly encephalized fish. Curr. Anthropol. 44(5):705-707. 705
105472  Pihu, E.,1979 Loomade elu 4. köide. Kalad. Pihu, E. 1979. Loomade Elu, 4. Köide, Kalad. Valgus, Tallinn.
106245  Moelants, T.,2015 Diversity and ecology of the ichthyofauna of the Middle and Upper Congo basin: a case-study in the region of the Wagenia falls (Democratic Republic of the Congo). KULeuven, Faculty of Science, Leuven (Belgium), 320p. 66
106290  Decru, E.,2015 The ichthyofauna in the Central Congo basin: diversity and distribution in the north-eastern tributaries. KULeuven, Faculty of Science, Leuven (Belgium), 303p. 35
114071  Bigorne, R.,1990 Mise en synonymie de Gnathonemus brevicaudatus Pellegrin, 1919 avec Gnathonemus petersii Gunther, 1862 (Teleostei, Mormyridae). Cybium 14(2):125-129. 125
115257  FAO-FIES,2017 Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Information System (ASFIS) species list. Retrieved from (accessed 08/06/2017).
117394  Sukhum, K.V., M.K. Freiler, R. Wang and B.A. Carlson,2016 The costs of a big brain: extreme encephalization results in higher energetic demand and reduced hypoxia tolerance in weakly African fishes. Proc. R. Soc. B 283:2016-2157. Suppl1
118272  FAO-FIES,2018 Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Information System (ASFIS) species list. Retrieved from htttps:// [accessed May, 2018]
118717  Tsuboi, M., W. van der Bijl, B.T. Kopperud, J. Erritzoe, K.L. Voje, A. Kotrschal, K.E. Yopak, S.P. Collin, A.N. Iwaniuk and N. Kolm,2018 Breakdown of brain-body allometry and the encephalization of birds and mammals. Nat. Ecol. Evol. 2:1495-1500.
120641  Skelton, P.H.,2019 Chapter 11. The freshwater fishes of Angola. p. 207-242. In B.J. Huntley, V. Russo, F. Lages and N. Ferrand (eds.) Biodiversity of Angola. Science & conservation: a modern synthesis. Springer Nature Switzerland AG, Cham, Switzerland. 549 p. 231
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