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References Used for Fishes of Crenuchidae
( South American darters )
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[ n = 114 ] 
Allard, L., A. Toussaint, R. Vigoroux and S. Brosse, 2015 Length-weight relationships of 58 fish species in French Guiana streams. J. Appl. Ichthyol. 31:567-570.
Alonso, L.E. and H.J. Berrenstein, 2006 A Rapid Biological Assessment of the Aquatic Ecosystems of the Coppename River Basin, Suriname. RAP Bull. Of Biol. Assessment 39:114-117.
Anonymous, 1999 Fish collection database of the Natural History Museum, London (formerly British Museum of Natural History (BMNH)). Natural History Museum, London (formerly British Museum of Natural History (BMNH)).
Anonymous, 2001 Fish collection database of the National Museum of Natural History (Smithsonian Institution). Smithsonian Institution-Division of Fishes.
Anonymous, 2002 Fish collection database of the American Museum of Natural History. American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West , NY 10024-5192, USA.
Anonymous, 2003 Fish collection of the Royal Ontario Museum. Royal Ontario Museum.
Anonymous, 2001 Fish collection database of the Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen. Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen.
Anonymous, 2000 The icthyological collection of the Zoological Museum Hamburg (ZMH). Division of Ichthyology and Herpetology, Zoological Museum Hamburg (ZMH).
Anonymous, 1996 Fish collection database of the University of British Columbia Fish Museum Fish Museum. University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.
Anonymous, 2000 Fish collection database of the Gulf Coast Research Laboratory (GCRL). The Gulf Coast Research Laboratory (GCRL), Ocean Springs, Mississippi, USA.
Antonetti, D.A., M.E. Leal and U.H. Schulz, 2013 Length-weight relationships of 19 fish species from the Jacuí Delta, RS, Brazil. J. Appl. Ichthyol. 30:259-260.
Baensch, H.A. and R. Riehl, 1995 Aquarien Atlas. Band 4. Mergus Verlag GmbH, Verlag für Natur-und Heimtierkunde, Melle, Germany. 864 p.
Baensch, H.A. and R. Riehl, 1985 Aquarien atlas. Band 2. Mergus, Verlag für Natur-und Heimtierkunde GmbH, Melle, Germany. 1216 p.
Baensch, H.A. and R. Riehl, 1997 Aquarien Atlas, Band 5. Mergus Verlag, Melle, Germany. 1148 p.
Baensch, H.A. and R. Riehl, 1991 Aquarien atlas. Bd. 3. Melle: Mergus, Verlag für Natur-und Heimtierkunde, Germany. 1104 p.
Barriga, R., 1991 Peces de agua dulce del Ecuador. Revista de Informacion tecnico-cientifica, Quito, Ecuador, Politecnica, XVI(3):7-88.
Batista-Silva, V.F., D. Bailly, E.A.L. Kashiwaqui, M.C.F. Abelha and W.J. Graça, 2015 Length-weight relationships for 55 freshwater fish species from the Iguatemi River, Upper Paraná basin, Brazil. J. Appl. Ichthyol. 31:257-260.
Becker, F.G., K.M. Grosser, P.C.C. Milani and A.S. Braun, 2006 Peixes. In F.G. Becker, L.A. Moura and R.A. Ramos (eds.). Biodiversidade. Regiões da lagoa do Casamento e dos Butiozais de Tapes, Planície costeira do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasília. 262-275 p.
Boujard, T., 1992 Space-time organization of riverine fish communities in French Guiana. Environ. Biol. Fishes 34(3):235-246.
Boujard, T., M. Pascal, F.J. Meunier and P.-Y. Le Bail, 1997 Poissons de Guyane. Guide écologique de l'Approuague et de la réserve des Nouragues. Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Paris, 219 p.
Breder, C.M. and D.E. Rosen, 1966 Modes of reproduction in fishes. T.F.H. Publications, Neptune City, New Jersey. 941 p.
Britski, H.A. and J.C. Garavello, 2003 Hisonotus insperatus: new species, from the upper Rio Paraná basin (Pisces: Ostariophysi: Loricariidae). Copeia 2003(3):588-593.
Britski, H.A., K.Z. de S> de Silimon and B.S. Lopes, 2007 Peixes do Pantanal: manual de identificaçäo, 2 ed. re. ampl. Brasília, DF: Embrapa Informaçäo Tecnológica, 227 p.
Brosse, S., G. Grenouillet, M. Gevrey, K. Khazraie and L. Tudesque, 2011 Small-scale gold mining erodes fish assemblage structure in small neotropical streams. Biodivers Conserv (2011)20:1013-1026.
Buckup, P.A., 1993 Review of the characidiin fishes (Teleostei: Characiformes), with descriptions of four new genera and ten new species. Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwat. 4(2):97-154.
Buckup, P.A., 2003 Crenuchidae (South American darters). p. 87-95. In R.E. Reis, S.O. Kullander and C.J. Ferraris, Jr. (eds.) Checklist of the Freshwater Fishes of South and Central America. Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS, Brasil.
Buckup, P.A., 1993 Phylogenetic interrelationships and reductive evolution in neotropical characidiin fishes (Characiformes, Ostariophysi). Cladistics, 9: 305-341.
Buckup, P.A. and L. Hahn, 2000 Characidium vestigipinne: a new species of Characidiinae (Teleostei, Characiformes) from Southern Brazil. Copeia 2000(1):150-155.
Buckup, P.A. and R.E. Reis, 1997 Characidiin genus Characidium (Teleostei, Characiformes) in Southern Brazil, with description of three new species. Copeia 1997(3):531-548.
Carl, H., 2003 Danish fish names. Zoological Museum of Copenhagen. Unpublished.
Casatti, L. and R.M.C. Castro, 1998 A fish community of the São Francisco River headwaters riffles, southeastern Brazil. Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwat. 9(3):229-242.
Casatti, L., M.A. Pérez-Mayorga, F.R. Carvalho, G.L. Brejão and I.D. da Costa, 2013 The stream fish fauna from the rio Machado basin, Rondônia State, Brazil. Check List 9(6):1496-1504.
Castro, R.M.C. and L. Casatti, 1997 The fish fauna from a small forest stream of the Upper Parana River Basin, southern Brazil. Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwat. 7(3-4):337-352.
Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, 2003 Chinese aquatic germplasm resources database.
Cordiviola de Yuan, E. and C. Pignalberi de Hassan, 1985 Fish population in the Paraná River: lentic environments of Diamante and San Pedro areas (Argentine Republic). Hydrobiologia 127:213-218.
da Graça, W.F. and C.S. Pavanelli, 2008 Characidium heirmostigmata, a new characidiin fish (Characiformes: Crenuchidae) from the Upper Rio Paraná basin, Brazil. Neotrop. Ichthyol. 6(1):53-36.
da Graça, W.F., C.S. Pavanelli and P.A. Buckup, 2008 Two new species of Characidium (Characiformes: crenuchidae) from Paraguay and Xingu River Basins, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Copeia 2008(2):326-332.
Doebber, C., D.A. Antonetti and U.H. Schulz, 2017 Length-weight relationships for 19 headwater fish species from streams in the Sinos River basin, southern Brazil. J. Appl. Ichthyol. 33:628-630.
Eguren, G. and L. Carrasco-Letelier, 2017 Length-weight relationships of 15 fish species from the Lower Uruguay freshwater ecoregion. J. Appl. Ichthyol. 33:597-599.
Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes, ECoF, 2021 Catalog of Fishes. 1985 - onwards. CITATION NOT TO BE USED OUTSIDE FISHBASE. SEE REMARKS. Authorship varies in time: Eschmeyer, W.N.; Fricke, R.; Van der Laan, R. Web database.
Eschmeyer, W.N., 1997 PISCES. Eschmeyer's PISCES database as published on the Internet in June 1997, URL: gopher://
Eschmeyer, W.N. (ed.), 1999 Catalog of fishes. Updated database version of November 1999. Catalog databases as made available to FishBase in November 1999.
Eschmeyer, W.N. (ed.), 1998 Catalog of fishes. Special Publication, California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco. 3 vols. 2905 p.
Eschmeyer, W.N. (ed.), 2009 Catalog of fishes. Updated database version of March 2009. Catalog databases as made available to FishBase in March 2009.
Eschmeyer, W.N. (ed.), 2010 Catalog of fishes. Updated internet version of 25 October 2010. Catalog databases of CAS cited in FishBase (website).
Eschmeyer, W.N. (ed.), 2003 Catalog of fishes. Updated database version of March 2003. Catalog databases as made available to FishBase in March 2003.
FAO-FIES, 2010 Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Information System (ASFIS) species list. Retrieved from, March 2010.
FAO-FIES, 2012 Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Information System (ASFIS) species list. Retrieved from, March 2012.
FAO-FIES, 2014 Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Information System (ASFIS) species list. Retrieved from, April 2014.
FAO-FIES, 2015 Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Information System (ASFIS) species list. Retrieved from, [accessed 13/04/2015].
FAO-FIES, 2008 Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Information System (ASFIS) species list. Retrieved from, 29 April 2008.
FAO-FIES, 2017 Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Information System (ASFIS) species list. Retrieved from (accessed 08/06/2017).
FAO-FIES, 2018 Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Information System (ASFIS) species list. Retrieved from htttps:// [accessed May, 2018]
Galvis, G., J.I. Mojica and M. Camargo, 1997 Peces del Catatumbo. Asociación Cravo Norte, Santafé de Bogotá, D.C., 188 p.
Gaspar, S., I. Tobes, R. Miranda, P.M. Leunda and M. Peláez, 2012 Length-weigh relationships of sixteen freshwater fishes from the Hacha River and its tributaries (Amazon Basin, Caquetá, Colombia). J. Appl. Ichthyol. 28(4):667-670.
Géry, J., 1977 Characoids of the world. Neptune City ; Reigate : T.F.H. [etc.]; 672 p. : ill. (chiefly col.) ; 23 cm.
Géry, J., A. Zarske and H.J. Paepke, 2001 Supplementary description of two overlooked fish taxa, Leporinus macrolepidotus Peters, 1868, and Nanognathus borellii Boulenger, 1895, actually members of the genus Characidium Reinhardt, 1866 (Teleostei: Characiformes: Characidiidae. Zool. Abh. Mus. Tierkde. Dresden 51(3):23-31.
Godoy, M.P., 1987 Peixes do estado de Santa Catarina. Editora da UFSC, Florianópolis, Brazil. 571 p.
Gurgel-Lourenço, R.C., C.A.S. Rodrigues-Filho, L.A.V. Bezerra and D.S. Garcez, 2017 Length-weight relationships for freshwater fish species from humid forest enclaves at the Brazilian semiarid. J. Appl. Ichthyol. 33:1254-1257.
Hureau, J.-C., 1991 La base de données GICIM : Gestion informatisée des collections ichthyologiques du Muséum. p. 225-227. In Atlas Préliminaire des Poissons d'Eau Douce de France. Conseil Supérieur de la Pêche, Ministère de l'Environnement, CEMAGREF et Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, Paris.
IBAMA, 2004 Instrução normativa no. 5 de 21 de maio de 2004. Anexo 1. Accessed in August 9th, 2010.
Iguchi, K., N. Matsubara, T. Yodo and K. Maekawa, 2004 Individual food niche specialization in stream-dwelling charr. Ichthyol. Res. 51:321-326.
Jordan, R., 1971 Distribution of anchoveta (Engraulis ringens J.) in relation to the environment. Invest. Pesq. 35(1):113-126.
Klinkhardt, M, M. Tesche and H. Greven, 1995 Database of fish chromosomes. Westarp Wissenschaften.
Koerber, S., 2008 List of freshwater fishes from Argentina - update 10. Ichthyol. Contri. Of PecesCriollos 11:1-9.
Leggatt, R.A. and G.K. Iwama, 2003 Occurrence of polyploidy in the fishes. Rev. Fish Biol. Fish. 13:237-246.
Leitão, R.P. and P.A. Buckup, 2014 A new species of Characidium (Characiformes: Crenuchidae) from coastal basins of Serra do Mar, southeastern Brazil. Copeia 2014(1):14-22.
Lins, L.V., A.B.M. Machado, C.M.R. Costa and G. Herrmann, 1997 Roteiro Metodológico Para Elaboração de Listas de Espécies Ameaçadas de Extinção (Contendo a Lista Oficial de Fauna Ameaçada de Extinção de Minas Gerais). Publicações Avulsas da Fundção Biodiversitas. 49 p.
López, H.L., A.M. Miquelarena and J. Ponte Gómez, 2005 Biodiversidad y distribución de la ictiofauna Mesopotámica. Miscelánea 14:311-354.
López, H.L., A.M. Miquelarena and R.C. Menni, 2003 Lista comentada de los peces continentales de la Argentina. ProBiota Serie Técnica y Didáctica N° 5, 87p.
Lopez, H.L., R.C. Menni and A.M. Miguelarena, 1987 Lista de los peces de agua dulce de la Argentina. Biologia Acuatica No. 12, 50 p. (Instituto de Limnologia "Dr. Raul A. Ringuelet").
Lujan, N.K., H. Agudelo-Zamora, D.C. Taphorn, P.N. Booth and H. López-Fernández, 2013 Description of a new, narrowly endemic South American Darter (Characiformes: Crenuchidae) from the Central Guiana shield highlands of Guyana. Copeia 2013(3):454-463.
Melo, M.R.S. and O.T. Oyakawa, 2015 A new species of Characidium Reinhardt (Characiformes: Crenuchidae) with a distinctively dimorphic male. Copeia 103(2):281-289.
Melo, M.R.S. and P.A. Buckup, 2002 Characidium stigmosum (Characiformes: Crenuchidae): a new species of Characidiin fish from central Brazil. Copeia 2002(4):988-993.
Mendonça, M.B. and A.L. Netto-Ferreira, 2015 New species of Characidium (Characiformes: Crenuchidae) from the Rio Tapajós and Rio Xingu drainages, Pará, Brazil. Zootaxa 4021(1):187-194.
Mérigoux, S. and D. Ponton, 1998 Body shape, diet and ontogenetic diet shifts in young fish of the Sinnamary River, French Guiana, South America. J. Fish Biol. 52(3):556-569.
Miyazawa, C.S. and P.M. Galetti, 1990 Análise cariótipica de distinctas espécie do grupo Characidium (Characidiinae, Characidae) das Bacias do alto Paraná e do Leste. p. 5. In III. Simp. Citogenet. Evol. e Aplic. de Peixes Neotropicais, Botucatu-SP.
Miyazawa, C.S. and P.M. Galetti Jr., 1994 First cytogenetical studies in Characidium species (Pisces: Characiformes, Characidiinae). Cytologia 59:73-79.
Netto-Ferreira, A.L., J.L.O. Birindelli and P.A. Buckup, 2013 A new miniature species of Characidium Reinhardt (Ostariophysi: Characiformes: Crenuchidae) from the headwaters of the rio Araguaia, Brazil. Zootaxa 3664(3):361-368.
Nión, H., C. Ríos and P. Meneses, 2002 Peces del Uruguay: Lista sistemática y nombres comunes. Montevideo, DINARA, Infopesca.
Nobile, A.B., E.M. Brambilla, F.P. de Lima, D. Freitas-Souza, I.L. Bayona-Perez and E.D. Carvalho, 2015 Length-weight relationships of 37 fish species from the Taquari River (Paranapanema Basin, Brazil). J. Appl. Ichthyol. 31:580-582.
Nomura, H., 1984 Nomes científicos dos peixes e seus correspondentes nomes vulgares. In H. Nomura (ed.). Dicionário dos peixes do Brasil. Editerra, Brasília, Brasil: 27-63.
Oliveira, V.A., S.M. Loverde-Oliveira, L.A. Mateus and F. Teixeira-de Mello, 2015 Length-weight relationships of 26 fish species from the streams of the upper section of the Paraguay River basin (Mato Grosso, Brazil). J. Appl. Ichthyol. 31(1):225-227.
Ortega, H. and R.P. Vari, 1986 Annotated checklist of the freshwater fishes of Peru. Smithson. Contrib. Zool. (437):1-25.
Oyakawa, O.T., 1998 Catalogo dos tipos de peixes recentes do Museu de Zoologia da USP. I. Characiformes (Teleostei: Ostariophysi). Pap. Avuls. Zool. 39(23):443-507.
Peixoto, L.A.W. and W.B. Wosiacki, 2013 A new species of Characidium Agassiz (Characiformes: Crenuchidae) from the Lower Amazon. Copeia 2013(1):52-57.
Planquette, P., P. Keith and P.-Y. Le Bail, 1996 Atlas des poissons d'eau douce de Guyane. Tome 1. Collection du Patrimoine Naturel Volume 22, MNHN, Paris & INRA, Paris. 429 p.
Ponton, D. and S. Mérigoux, 2001 Description and ecology of some early life stages of fishes in the River Sinnamary (French Guiana, South America). Folia Zool. 50(Monogr. 1):1-116.
Presswell, B., S.H. Weitzman and T. Bergquist, 2000 Skiotocharax meixon, a new genus and species of fish from Guyana with discussion of its relationships (Characiformes: Crenuchidae). Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwat. 11(2):175-192.
Queiroz Rodrigues, E. K. de and A.L. Netto-Ferreira, 2020 A new miniature species of Odontocharacidium (Characiformes: Crenuchidae) from the Río Orinoco basin, Venezuela. Neotropical Ichthyology 18(2)1-11.
Reis, R.E., S.O. Kullander and C.J. Ferraris Jr. (eds.), 2003 Checklist of the freshwater fishes of South and Central America. EDIPUCRS, Porto Alegre, Brasil. 742 p.
Riehl, R. and H.A. Baensch, 1991 Aquarien Atlas. Band. 1. Melle: Mergus, Verlag für Natur-und Heimtierkunde, Germany. 992 p.
Riehl, R. and H.A. Baensch, 1996 Aquarien Atlas, Band 1. 10th edition. Mergus Verlag GmBH, Melle, Germany. 992 p.
Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea and W.B. Scott, 1991 World fishes important to North Americans. Exclusive of species from the continental waters of the United States and Canada. Am. Fish. Soc. Spec. Publ. (21):243 p.
Rodríguez-Olarte, D., D.C. Taphorn and H. Agudelo-Zamora, 2018 Length-weight relationships of fishes from western Caribbean freshwater drainages of Venezuela. J. Appl. Ichthyol. 2018:1-5.
Rosa, D.C.O., B.E. Soares, M.P. Albrecht and E.P. Caramaschi, 2016 Length-weight relationship of 10 freshwater fish species in Amazonian streams, Trombetas River basin (Brazil). J. Appl. Ichthyol. 32:749-750.
Rosa, R.S. and N.A. Menezes, 1996 Relaçao preliminar das espécies de peixes (Pisces, Elasmobranchii, Actinopterygii) Ameaçadas no Brasil. Revta bras. Zool. 13(3):647-667.
Santos, E., 1981 Peixes da Água doce (Vida e costumes dos peixes do Brasil). Belo Horizonte, Brasil, Editora Itatiaia Limitada.267.
Severo-Neto, F., D.A. Lopes, A. Ferreira, B.T. Martínez and F.d.O. Roque, 2018 Length-weight relations of fishes (Actinopterygii) from Karst streams in the Bodoquena Plateau, Western Brazil. Acta Ichthyol. Et Pisc. 48(4):419-422.
Silveira, L.G.G., F. Langeani, W.J. da Graça, C.S. Pavanelli and P.A. Buckup, 2008 Characidium xanthopterum (Ostariophysi: Characiformes: Crenuchidae): a new species from the Central Brazilian Plateau. Neotrop. Ichthyol. 6(2):169-174.
Skelton, P.H., 2001 A complete guide to the freshwater fishes of southern Africa. Cape Town (South Africa): Struik Publishers, 395 p.
Swedish Museum of Natural History, 1999 Fish collection database of the Naturhistoriska riksmuseet (Swedish Museum of Natural History). Ichthyology Section, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden.
Taphorn, D.C., C.G. Montaña and P. Buckup, 2006 Characidium longum (Characiformes: Crenuchidae), a new fish from Venezuela. Zootaxa 1247:1-12.
Tobes, I., R. Miranda, A. Pino-del-Carpio, J.M. Araujo-Flores and H. Ortega, 2016 Length-weight relationships of freshwater fishes of the Alto Madre de Dios River (Manu Biosphere Reserve, Peru). J. Appl. Ichthyol. 32:1256-1258.
Toledo-Piza, M., 2002 Peixes do Rio Negro (Fishes of the Rio Negro: Alfred Russel Wallace (1980-1952)). To be filled.
Varjo, M., L. Koli and H. Dahlström, 2004 Kalannimiluettelo (versio 10/03). Suomen Biologian Seura Vanamo Ry.
Wheeler, A., 1977 Das grosse Buch der Fische. Eugen Ulmer GmbH & Co. Stuttgart. 356 p.
Wu, H.L., K.-T. Shao and C.F. Lai (eds.), 1999 Latin-Chinese dictionary of fishes names. The Sueichan Press, Taiwan. 1028 p.
Zanata, A.M. and P. Camelier, 2014 A new species of Characidium (Characiformes: Crenuchidae) from small coastal drainages in northeastern Brazil, with remarks on the pseudotympanum of some species of the genus. Neotrop. Ichthyol. 12(2):333-342.
Zanata, A.M. and P. Camelier, 2015 Two new species of Characidium Reinhardt (Characiformes: Crenuchidae) from northeastern Brazilian coastal drainages. Neotrop. Ichthyol. 13(3):487-498.
Zanata, A.M., L.M. Sarmento-Soares and R.F. Martins-Pinheiro, 2015 A new species of Characidium Reinhardt (Ostariophysi: Characiformes: Crenuchidae) from coastal rivers in the extreme south of Bahia, Brazil. Zootaxa 4040(3):371-383.
Zanata, A.M., W.M. Ohara, O.T. Oyakawa and F.C.P. Dagosta, 2020 A new rheophillic South American darter (Crenuchidae: Characidium) from the rio Juruena basin, Brazil, with comments on morphological adaptations to life in fast-flowing waters. J. Fish Biol. 97(5):1343-1353.
Zaniboni Filho, E., S. Meurer, O.A. Shibatta and A.P. de Oliverira Nuñer, 2004 Catálogo ilustrado de peixes do alto Rio Uruguai. Florianópolis : Editora da UFSC : Tractebel Energia. 128 p. :col. ill., col. maps ; 25 cm.
Zarske, A., 1997 Geryichthys sterbai gen. et spec. nov. und Microcharacidium geryi spec. nov.: Beschreibung einer neuen Gattung un zweier neuer Arten von Bodensalmlern aus dem Eizugsgebiet des rio Ucayali in Peru (Teleostei: Ostariophysi: Characiformes: Characidiidae). Zool. Abh. Mus. Tierkd. Dresden 49(9):157-172 [English abstract].
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