Tylochromis bangwelensis Regan, 1920
Hump-back bream
Hump-back bream,  Lyongo,  Nsangula
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Family:  Cichlidae (Cichlids), subfamily: Pseudocrenilabrinae
Max. size:  27.5 cm TL (male/unsexed)
Environment:  benthopelagic; freshwater,
Distribution:  Africa: Luapula, Lake Bangwelu and surrounding swamps, and the Chambezi (upper Congo River basin) in Democratic Republic of the Congo and Zambia (Ref. 246, 45616, 52346). Reports from the Luvua, upper Lualaba and lakes Mweru and Upemba (Ref. 2970, 45616) based on misidentifications (Ref. 52346).
Diagnosis:  Dorsal spines (total): 13-15; Dorsal soft rays (total): 14-16; Anal spines: 3; Anal soft rays: 7-8; Vertebrae: 28. Diagnosis: lower lateral line extending far forward (Ref. 52962). Description: deep-bodied with a strongly curved back (Ref. 52307). Dorsum strongly recurved from nape to caudal peduncle but ventrum flattened; deepest body depth along back is at or little behind origin of dorsal fin; predorsal profile more or less straight and steep (Ref. 52346). 3 series of scales on cheek (Ref. 52971). Mouth might be slightly inclined in larger individuals; lips well-developed but not markedly thickened or fleshy (Ref. 52346). Maxillary not extending to below eye (Ref. 52971). Pharyngeal apophysis of the Tylochromis type (Ref. 53524). Entire premaxillary oral valve present; interorbital region with unfrequently developed fleshy bulge; most specimens with "straight-snouted" appearance; inferior vertebral apophysis of the standard Tylochromis type; upper branch of lateral line terminates a little in advance of the end of the dorsal fin; 2 series of scales between upper lateral line and anterior part of lower (Ref. 52346). 24-29 scales in lower lateral line (Ref. 52971). Dorsal and ventral branches of lateral line on caudal fin often difficult to distinguish but invariably present and extend about 2/3 of the way onto the fin; median branch frequently missing but when present rarely extends more than halfway along the fin; dorsal fin spines increase in length to 4th-5th and are then more or less equal in length; anal fin rounded; caudal fin strongly emarginate and only finely scaled in dorsal and ventral fields; pectoral fins usually reach origin of soft anal fin but rarely extend beyond that; first branched ray of pelvic fins produced and filamentous and frequently reaches soft anal fin (Ref. 52346). Coloration: pale greenish-yellowish (Ref. 52307). Approximately 6 blackish transversal bands, scales often blackish at center (Ref. 2970). Head, front of body, pelvic fins and lower lobe of caudal fin often with red; dorsal fin smokey brown with numerous rows of pale spots; anal fin smokey grey (Ref. 52346). Males: darker than females; tend to have lost all traces of vertical striping; yellowish in color with white lips; anal fin with 2-3 rows of pale spots; caudal fin with pattern of dark spotting and striping characteristic of Tylochromis males (Ref. 52346). Mature females: tend to be darker than juveniles; red patch on opercular bones; dark nape band well-marked and distinct; mostly with retention of traces of vertical striping; preserved fish frequently silvery (Ref. 52346). Juveniles: typically dusky grey over snout and interorbital region; faint opercular blotch usually contacts nape stripe and 6 vertical bars extend well below midline onto flanks; in small specimens short bars alternate with main vertical stripes in typical "juvenile barring" pattern; dorsal fin smokey brown and spotted with rows of whitish spots (Ref. 52346).
Biology:  Predominant food is the lake-fly in its larval aquatic stages (Ref. 246). Also feeds on plants; maternal mouthbrooder that does not pair-bond (Ref. 52307). Max. length of 27.5 cm presumed to be TL.
IUCN Red List Status: Least Concern (LC); Date assessed: 16 February 2009 Ref. (124695)
Threat to humans:  harmless
Country info:  Known from the Bangweulu region, where it is well represented in the lake and its surrounding swamps (Ref. 52346, 52963), the Chambesi River and the upper Luapula (upper Congo River basin); apparently absent from Lake Mweru (Ref. 52346). Present in Kasanka National Park (Ref. 95585). Type locality of the lectotype of Tylochromis bangwelensis: 'Lake Bangwelo' (Ref. 52346).

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