Torpedo torpedo (Linnaeus, 1758)
Common torpedo
Torpedo torpedo
photo by Wirtz, P.

Family:  Torpedinidae (Electric rays)
Max. size:  60 cm TL (male/unsexed); 41 cm TL (female)
Environment:  demersal; marine; depth range 2 - 400 m
Distribution:  Eastern Atlantic: southern Bay of Biscay and throughout the Mediterranean to Angola. Most common in tropical waters.
Biology:  Found on soft bottoms, usually inshore but occasionally deeper. Feeds on small fishes and also benthic invertebrates. Ovoviviparous, with 3-21 in a litter (Ref. 12951, Ref. 114953). Size at birth 9 cm (Ref. 12951). Capable of inflicting a severe shock of up to 200 volts.
IUCN Red List Status: Vulnerable (VU); Date assessed: 04 August 2020 (A2bd) Ref. (126983)
Threat to humans:  other

Source and more info: For personal, classroom, and other internal use only. Not for publication.