Thrissina whiteheadi (Wongratana, 1983)
Whitehead's Thryssa
photo by FAO

Family:  Engraulidae (Anchovies), subfamily: Coiliinae
Max. size:  20.48 cm SL (male/unsexed)
Environment:  pelagic-neritic; brackish; marine
Distribution:  Western Indian Ocean: only in the Persian Gulf, but may reach into the Gulf of Oman.
Diagnosis:  This species is distinguished by the following set of characters: upper jaw is relatively long, with its posterior tip slightly beyond opercle posterior margin, but not reaching pectoral-fin insertion; the first supramaxilla absent; teeth on both jaws are robust and enlarged; dorsum no dark lines when preserved; the dark black blotch behind upper part of gill opening is absent or indistinct in preserved specimens; branched rays of dorsal fin 9-11 (modally 10), anal fin usually 39-42 (rarely 43, modally 40) and pectoral fin 11-12 (modally 12); transverse scales 10-11 (11); scale rows in longitudinal series 40-42 (42); gill rakers on first gill arch, in upper series 12–15 (13), lower series 18-21 (19), total 30-34 (rarely 36, modally 32); gill rakers on second gill arch, in upper series 10-13 (modally 12), lower series 18-21 (19), total 29-34 (31); gill rakers on third gill arch, in upper series 8-10 (8), lower series 10-13 (11), total 19-23 (19); gill rakers on fourth gill arch, in upper series 6-8 (7), lower series 8-11 (10), total 14-19 (17) in total; snout is short, 3.1-3.6% SL pelvic fin short, 7.7-9.0% SL; mandible is short, 15.4-17.2% SL; pelvic-fin insertion to anal-fin origin 19.1-24.2% SL (Ref. 123974).
Biology:  Pelagic (Ref. 68964). Presumably schooling. More data needed. Apparently common but seldom seen in the market at Kuwait.
IUCN Red List Status: Least Concern (LC); Date assessed: 12 February 2018 Ref. (126983)
Threat to humans:  harmless

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