Squalus montalbani Whitley, 1931
Philippiines spurdog
photo by Graham, K.

Family:  Squalidae (Dogfish sharks)
Max. size:  84 cm TL (male/unsexed); 94.5 cm TL (female)
Environment:  bathydemersal; marine; depth range 154 - 1370 m
Distribution:  Eastern Indian Ocean to Pacific: warm temperate to tropical waters; Australia to the Philippines; north to Taiwan, including Indonesia.
Diagnosis:  This large species of the ‘mitsukurii group’ is distinguished by the following set of characters: body elongate to robust, trunk depth 8.9-13.4% TL (mean 11.4% TL, n=14); snout is broadly triangular, with mouth width 1.69-2.32 (1.85) times the horizontal prenarial length; pre-first dorsal length 26.5-30.7 (29.0)% TL; pre-second dorsal length 57.6-62.8 (60.8)% TL; interdorsal space 21.7-25.9 (23.7)% TL; low raked dorsal fins; second dorsal-fin length 11.1-13.9 (12.4)% TL, height 3.4-4.6 (4.0)% TL, inner margin length 4.0-5.9 (4.8)% TL; second dorsal-fin base 15.8-21.3 (20.8) times the base of second dorsal spine; pre-pectoral length 20.8-22.9 (22.0)% TL; pelvic-caudal space 22.9-26.0 (24.0)% TL; caudal bar is almost upright, extending broadly from the caudal fork up the poster or margin of the upper lobe for about 0.6 of its length in immature specimens, upper caudal fringe forming a deep saddle along midlength of lobe; flank denticles tricuspid; monospondylous centra 41-47 (mainly 42-44), precaudal centra 79-85, total centra 105-114 (Ref. 58441).
Biology:  Occurs on or near the bottom of upper continental and insular slopes. Viviparous with yolk-sac dependency; gives birth to 4-16 pups, gestation unknown. Feeds mainly on small fishes, cephalopods, and crustaceans. Usually caught by demersal longline fisheries operating in deepwater. Marketed for its meat, fins, and liver oil which has a high value (Ref. 58048).
IUCN Red List Status: Vulnerable (VU); Date assessed: 03 August 2018 (A2bd+3d) Ref. (130435)
Threat to humans:  harmless

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