Spondyliosoma cantharus (Linnaeus, 1758)
Black seabream
Spondyliosoma cantharus
photo by Patzner, R.

Family:  Sparidae (Porgies)
Max. size:  60 cm SL (male/unsexed); max.weight: 1,220.0 g
Environment:  benthopelagic; marine; depth range 5 - 300 m, oceanodromous
Distribution:  Eastern Atlantic: Scandinavia to northern Namibia (Ref. 11228), including the Strait of Gibraltar, Mediterranean and the Black Sea, Madeira, Canary Islands, and Cape Verde.
Diagnosis:  Dorsal spines (total): 11-11; Dorsal soft rays (total): 11-13. Body tall, with weak longitudinal stripes and no dark spots. Snout as long or longer than the eye diameter (Ref. 35388).
Biology:  Found over seagrass beds and rocky and sandy bottoms to about 300 m (Ref. 3688). Gregarious, sometimes in large schools (Ref. 3688). Omnivorous, feeding on seaweeds and small invertebrates, especially crustaceans (Ref. 3688). Protogynic hermaphrodites (Ref. 4781). An important food fish.
IUCN Red List Status: Least Concern (LC); Date assessed: 18 August 2009 Ref. (130435)
Threat to humans:  harmless

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