Pseudomonacanthus macrurus (Bleeker, 1856)
Strap-weed file-fish
Pseudomonacanthus macrurus
photo by Malaer, P.

Family:  Monacanthidae (Filefishes)
Max. size:  25.5 cm SL (male/unsexed)
Environment:  reef-associated; marine; depth range 1 - 10 m
Distribution:  Indo-West Pacific: Indian Ocean, South China Sea, southern Japan. Reported from Papua New Guinea (Ref. 6771).
Diagnosis:  Dorsal spines (total): 2-2; Dorsal soft rays (total): 29-30; Anal soft rays: 27-30. Description: Characterized by having highly variable colouration due to chameleon-like ability to change pattern depending on surroundings and mood; usually yellowish to brown with head and body covered with numerous brown to blackish spots and overlying pattern of large irregular blotches that can be intensified or subdued; shorter first dorsal spine compared to snout, origin of spine above middle to posterior half of eye; depth of body at level of origin of anal fin 2.5-2.8 in SL; concave snout profile; immovable pelvic spine, barely projecting beyond large ventral flap; relatively large and rounded caudal fin (Ref. 90102).
Biology:  Inhabits shallow coastal algal reefs and estuaries. Sometimes solitary (Ref. 90102). Adults are often in pairs (Ref. 48637).
IUCN Red List Status: Least Concern (LC); Date assessed: 18 July 2017 Ref. (126983)
Threat to humans:  harmless

Source and more info: For personal, classroom, and other internal use only. Not for publication.