Pronothobranchius gambiensis (Svensson, 1933)

Family:  Nothobranchiidae (African rivulines)
Max. size:  4.13 cm SL (male/unsexed); 4.71 cm SL (female)
Environment:  pelagic; freshwater,
Distribution:  Africa: Gambia River drainage in Gambia and Senegal (Ref. 95020).
Diagnosis:  Dorsal spines (total): 0-0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 15-17; Anal spines: 0-0; Anal soft rays: 15-17; Vertebrae: 29-29. Diagnosis: It is distinguished from all congeners by the following unique combination of characters: males with about 5-20 spots on flank, each being greater in diameter than the radius of the pupil, proximal stripe on anal fin, dorsal fin tip reaching centre of caudal peduncle, pelvic fin short, not reaching anus, females with dots on flank and fins; dorsal fin with 15-17 rays and 26-31 scales in median lateral series (Ref. 95020). Description: Dorsal profile concave on head, convex from nape to end of dorsal fin base; ventral profile convex slightly concave to nearly straight on caudal peduncle posterior to dorsal and anal fins (Ref. 95020). Snout slightly pointed, mouth directed upwards, lower jaw longer than upper, posterior end of rictus at same level as or slightly above centre of eye; branchiostegal membrane projecting posteriorly from opercle (Ref. 95020). Dorsal and anal fin rounded, shallow, located posterior to mid-body, tips with short filamentous rays, dorsal fin tip reaching centre of caudal peduncle; rays of both fins with papillate contact organs; dorsal and anal fin rays 15-17; pectoral fin approximately triangular, short, posterior margin not reaching pelvic fin base; pectoral fin rays 18; pelvic fins tips reaching anus; pelvic fin rays 6; caudal fin sub-truncate; caudal fin rays 29 (Ref. 95020). Scales cycloid, body and head entirely scaled, except for ventral surface of head; scales in median lateral series 26-31 + 3-4 on caudal fin base (Ref. 95020). Frontal squamation G-type; frontal neuromast series of 'open' type; supra-orbital series in shallow groove, with two neuromasts; preopercular canal with 6 pores; one neuromast on each scale of median longitudinal series (Ref. 95020). Basihyal bone fan-shaped, about 70-90% as wide as long; six branchiostegal rays; large patch of teeth on vomer; second pharyngobranchial with a single tooth; single antero-dorsal urohayal process; lateral post-temporal process absent; total vertebrae 29 (Ref. 95020). Premaxilla and dentary with numerous irregularly distributed unicuspid, slightly curved teeth of variable size, a small number of larger ones on outer row of upper and lower jaws (Ref. 95020). Colouration: Male colour in life: body and head scales light blue with thick orange margin, darker dorsally; flank with approximately 5-20 rounded reddish large spots; inferior lip reddish, extending in an oblique bar below orbit; throat yellowish; opercular region yellowish golden with 2-3 irregular oblique reddish bars and dots on ventral position; branchiostegal membrane reddish; dorsal fin orange with dark red spots proximally, narrow, pale-blue sub-distal band and broad dark red margin; anal fin orange with dark red proximal stripe, narrow, pale-blue sub-distal band and broad dark red margin; pelvic fins pale orange; pectoral fins pale orange with red dots on ventral portion of rays; caudal fin dark orange with complete dark red margin, orange to yellowish on dorsal and ventral portions; iris golden (Ref. 95020). Female colouration in life: body and head scales pale oliveto light brown, silvery to golden ventrally; opercular region silvery to golden; side with reddish rounded dots; dorsal and anal fins hyaline, sometimes with red dots; caudal and paired fins hyaline; iris golden (Ref. 95020).
IUCN Red List Status: Endangered (EN); Date assessed: 09 September 2019 (B1ab(iii)+2ab(iii)) Ref. (130435)
Threat to humans:  harmless

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