Parotocinclus robustus Lehmann A. & Reis, 2012

Family:  Loricariidae (Armored catfishes), subfamily: Hypoptopomatinae
Max. size:  4.2 cm SL (male/unsexed)
Environment:  demersal; freshwater
Distribution:  South America: upper and middle Rio São Francico basin in Brazil.
Diagnosis:  Dorsal spines (total): 1-1; Dorsal soft rays (total): 7-7; Anal soft rays: 6-6. Distinguished from all species of Parotocinclus, except P. prata, by its abdomen completely devoid of dermal plates between the pectoral girdle and the anus. Differs from P. prata by having the ventral surface of the head behind the lower lip smooth, without rugosities in adults (vs. ventral surface of the head behind the lower lip highly rugose in adult specimens), and by having the postrostral plate 4 contacting the infraorbitals 3 and 4 (vs. postrostral plate 4 not contacting the infraorbital series). Can be further diagnosed from most congeners, except P. arandai, P. bahiensis, P. prata, and P. spilurus, by having the rostral plate not visible ventrally on the snout tip (vs. rostral plate visible ventrally on the snout tip); and from most congeners, except P. spilurus, P. cearensis, P. prata, P. jumbo, P. spilosoma, and P. cesarpintoi, by having the pectoral girdle covered by skin medially and exposed and supporting odontodes only laterally (vs. pectoral girdle exposed and supporting odontodes both medially and laterally) (Ref. 91034).
Biology:  Occurs in small to median-sized rivers with shallow water (0.4-1.5 m depth), slow to median-speed waterflow and clear to slightly turbid water running over a mixed bottom consisting of stones, gravel, sand and sometimes mud. Mostly found on the marginal vegetation (Ref. 91034).
IUCN Red List Status: Least Concern (LC); Date assessed: 07 November 2018 Ref. (126983)
Threat to humans:  harmless

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