Pareiorhaphis proskynita Pereira & Britto, 2012

Family:  Loricariidae (Armored catfishes), subfamily: Hypoptopomatinae
Max. size:  9.59 cm SL (male/unsexed)
Environment:  demersal; freshwater; pH range: 4.5 - 5.5
Distribution:  South America: upper portion of the Ribeirão Caraça, tributary to Rio Piracicaba in Brazil.
Diagnosis:  Dorsal soft rays (total): 8-8; Anal soft rays: 6-6. Distinguished from all congeners by its unique color pattern consisting of large and conspicuous dark brown blotches irregularly scattered over a yellowish tan background on head, along the dorsal surface of body and flanks, and shallow depression at posterior unpaired plates covering the area otherwise occupied by the adipose fin. Differs from all congeners except Pareiorhaphis nudulus, P. eurycephalus, and P. vestigipinnis by the usual absence of the adipose fin; and from P. nudulus, P. eurycephalus, and P. vestigipinnis by having a shorter pectoral-fin spine 13.9-18.4% SL (vs. 19.3-24.2, 20.0-24.7, and 18.2-21.4% SL, respectively) (Ref. 91754).
Biology:  Occurs in tributaries of the upper Ribeirão Caraça as well as in the main course of Ribeirão Caraça. These tributaries are blackwater rivers with translucent and fast flowing water and bottom consisting of very large rocks sparsely covered by iron-ore pebbles and gravel. These rocks are covered by a thin layer of periphyton and green algae. Found in medium-sized streams, relatively shallow (0.5 to 1.5 m deep). Small specimens and juveniles were collected in stretches of relative-slow water currents, associated with loose stones and pebbles deposits. Food items found in the guts of 2 specimens (3.91-8.26 cm SL) were mainly filamentous algae. Collected together with Oligosarcus sp. and Hoplias cf. malabaricus in stretches of slow-water pools (Ref. 91754).
IUCN Red List Status: Least Concern (LC); Date assessed: 07 November 2018 Ref. (130435)
Threat to humans:  harmless

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