Pareiorhaphis lophia Pereira & Zanata, 2014

Family:  Loricariidae (Armored catfishes), subfamily: Hypoptopomatinae
Max. size:  8.21 cm SL (male/unsexed)
Environment:  demersal; freshwater
Distribution:  South America: Rio ParaguaƧu basin in Brazil.
Diagnosis:  Dorsal spines (total): 1-1; Dorsal soft rays (total): 7-7; Anal soft rays: 6-6; Vertebrae: 28-28. This species can be distinguished from all congeners by having 2 unique characters: skin fold just posterior to each emergent tooth series of dentary formed by a single enlarged, flattened papilla; and the midline of lower lip immediately behind the dentaries with small patch of distinct papillae arranged in a short median bump (vs. papillae not projected in a bump). It can be further differentiated from other congeners except of Pareiorhaphis proskynita by its caudal peduncle depth 6.7-7.8% SL (vs. 7.8-14.0% SL). It differs from other congeners except P. bahianus, P. cerosus, P. eurycephalus, P. nudulus, P. parmula, P. steindachneri, and P. vestigipinnis by having 20-38 dentary teeth (vs. 42-120). The usual absence of the first dorsal-fin spinelet (vs. absence) separates this species from P. bahianus, P. cerosus, P. eurycephalus, P. parmula, and P. steindachneri. It further differs from P. nudulus and P. vestigipinnis by the presence of an adipose fin (vs. adipose fin absent) and having caudal peduncle width 4.1-5.3 % SL (vs. 5.5-8.7% SL) (Ref. 95497). Description: Anal fin i,5; Pelvic-fin i,5; dorsal-fin spine moderately flexible, followed by seven branched rays; dorsal-fin locking mechanism not functional (Ref. 95497).
Biology:  This species was found in blackwater coastal river and collected from the shallow rocky platforms and inside crevices at night. In other sampling areas, this was observed hidden among pebbles on the shallow rapids and also on narrow stretches around 50 cm deep, just below a waterfall, with fast water current and rocky bottom. Syntopic with Hypostomus chrysostiktos and H. jaguar (Ref. 95497).
IUCN Red List Status: Least Concern (LC); Date assessed: 07 November 2018 Ref. (130435)
Threat to humans:  harmless

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