Pardachirus pavoninus (Lacepède, 1802)
Peacock sole
Pardachirus pavoninus
photo by Greenfield, J.

Family:  Soleidae (Soles)
Max. size:  25 cm TL (male/unsexed)
Environment:  reef-associated; marine; depth range 2 - 40 m
Distribution:  Indo-Pacific: Sri Lanka east to Samoa and Tonga (Ref. 2334), north to Japan (Ref. 559), south to Onslow, Australia.
Diagnosis:  Dorsal spines (total): 0-0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 62-73; Anal spines: 0-0; Anal soft rays: 48-55. Eyes on right side. Dorsal and anal fins separate from caudal fin; pectoral fins absent; pelvic fins unequal, the right one with an elongated base and attached posteriorly to genital papilla (Ref. 9893). Series of toxic glands along the bases of dorsal- and anal-fin rays, their pores visible (Ref. 9893). Reddish brown, densely spotted on head; body and fins of ocular surface also with spots of various sizes and shapes, bordered by a dark rim and some with a blackish spot on center (Ref. 9893).
Biology:  Occurs on sand and mud bottoms of lagoon and seaward reefs (Ref. 1602, 48637). Burries itself in the sand (Ref. 48637). Feeds mainly on benthic invertebrates, especially small crustaceans (Ref. 9893). Extract from sac under the skin is toxic (Ref. 559) and the mucus appears to have shark-repellent qualities.
IUCN Red List Status: Least Concern (LC); Date assessed: 04 March 2015 Ref. (123251)
Threat to humans:  venomous
Country info:   

Entered by: Sa-a, Pascualita - 19.08.93
Modified by: Ortañez, Auda Kareen - 05.06.06
Checked by: Munroe, Thomas - 06.10.95

Source and more info: For personal, classroom, and other internal use only. Not for publication.

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