Notemigonus crysoleucas (Mitchill, 1814)
Golden shiner
Notemigonus crysoleucas
photo by Scarola, J.F.

Family:  Leuciscidae (Minnows), subfamily: Leuciscinae
Max. size:  32 cm TL (male/unsexed); max. reported age: 9 years
Environment:  demersal; freshwater; brackish; depth range - 10 m
Distribution:  North America: Atlantic and Gulf Slope drainages from Nova Scotia in Canada to southern Texas, USA; Great Lakes, Hudson Bay (Red River), and Mississippi River basins west to Saskatchewan in Canada, and Montana, west Oklahoma and Texas in USA.
Diagnosis:  Dorsal soft rays (total): 7-9; Anal soft rays: 8-19. Body extremely compressed; lateral line strongly decurved; scaleless keel along belly from pelvic to anal fin; dorsal- fin origin behind pelvic-fin origin; mouth small, upturned on pointed snout; appears silver in clear and turbid water, and gold side and fins in coffee-colored water; fins red in southern hemisphere; dusky stripe along side, herringbone lines on upper side of young. Scales on lateral line 44-54; dorsal fin with 7-9 rays; anal fin with 8-19 rays, usually 11-14; rakers on 1st gill arch 17-19; and pharyngeal teeth 0,5-5,0 (Ref. 86798).
Biology:  Inhabits vegetated lakes, ponds, swamps, backwaters and pools of creeks and small to medium rivers (Ref. 86798). Can tolerate low oxygen levels, high turbidity and high temperature; omnivorous but principally feed on plankton, insects and mollusks (Ref. 27549).
IUCN Red List Status: Least Concern (LC); Date assessed: 01 March 2012 Ref. (130435)
Threat to humans:  harmless

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