Melanotaenia sneideri Allen & Hadiaty, 2013
Kumawa rainbowfish

Family:  Melanotaeniidae (Rainbowfishes, blue eyes)
Max. size:  8.01 cm SL (male/unsexed); 7.98 cm SL (female)
Environment:  pelagic; freshwater; depth range 0 - 1 m
Distribution:  Asia: Indonesia.
Diagnosis:  Dorsal spines (total): 4-7; Dorsal soft rays (total): 13-14; Anal spines: 1-1; Anal soft rays: 23-28. This species is distinguished by the following set of characters: D IV to VI-I,13-14 (usually V-I,13); A I,23-28 (most frequently 24); pectoral rays 13-15 (usually 14); lateral scales 34-36 (usually 35), predorsal scales 17-18; cheek scales 14-18 (x = 15.6); circumpeduncular scales 15-16; total gill rakers on first arch 18-20 (usually 18-19); no vomerine teeth or if present, as an inconspicuous rudimentary patch; head length 3.6-4.0 18 (x = 3.8) in SL; depth of caudal peduncle 2.3-2.8 (x = 2.5) in HL; maximum body depth of male (80.1 mm SL) 42.3 % SL. Colour in life of adult male generally bright red with bluish head, mainly dark brown to blackish dorsal, anal, and pelvic fins, and pinkish orange caudal fin (Ref. 95068).
Biology:  The type locality lies at an altitude of 1,050 m and consists of a small ephemeral lake basin, approximately 1000 m long and 600 m wide. During dry periods, it consists of small creek that emerges from limestone rocks on the edge of the basin and flows for 500-600 m before draining underground. The maximum width of this remarkably clear creek varies from about 1-2 m, with a maximum depth of 30-50 cm, and average depth of about 10-20 cm. Late early March 2013, most fish, particularly large adults, were concentrated in rocky pools near the end of the creek, just before it disappeared into the ground. But conditions had changed dramatically due to heavy rainfall during a second visit near the end of March where the creek was then inundated, forming a small lake and consequently, the fish is more widely dispersed (Ref. 95068).
IUCN Red List Status: Critically Endangered (CR); Date assessed: 06 December 2019 (B2ac(i)) Ref. (126983)
Threat to humans:  harmless

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