Leuciscus idus (Linnaeus, 1758)
photo by Zienert, S.

Family:  Leuciscidae (Minnows), subfamily: Leuciscinae
Max. size:  85 cm SL (male/unsexed); max.weight: 4,000.0 g; max. reported age: 29 years
Environment:  benthopelagic; freshwater; brackish; pH range: 7 - 7.5; dH range: 10 - 15; depth range - 15 m, potamodromous
Distribution:  Europe and Asia: Baltic, Black, northern Caspian and North Sea basins, Atlantic basin southward to Seine and lower Loire drainages (France). Absent in Scandinavia north of 69°N. In Asia, eastward to Lena drainage and Aral basin. Introduced to Great Britain and northern Italy (Ref. 59043). Transported to several countries in Europe and the United States for ornament (Ref. 4537).
Diagnosis:  Dorsal spines (total): 3-3; Dorsal soft rays (total): 8-11; Anal spines: 3-3; Anal soft rays: 8-11; Vertebrae: 47-47. Diagnosed from congeners in Europe by the following characters: lateral line with 56-58 + 3 scales; pharyngeal teeth 3,5-5,3; mouth terminal; dorsal fin with 8½ branched rays; anal fin with 10-11½ branched rays; all fins except dorsal fin with reddish tinge; pigmentation on lateral scales lacking regular black mesh (Ref. 59043). Caudal fin with 19 rays (Ref. 2196).
Biology:  Usually inhabits large lowland rivers and nutrient-rich lakes. Adults are solitary while juveniles are gregarious. Undertakes migration to tributaries to spawn in moderate current on gravel or submerged vegetation. Feeds on various aquatic and terrestrial animals and plant material. Larger individuals feed mainly on fishes. Feeding larvae and juveniles thrive in a wide variety of shoreline habitats and leave the shores for deeper waters when growing. Reported to sometimes hybridizes with Aspius aspius (Ref. 59043). Its flesh is not tasty (Ref. 30578). Aquarium keeping: at least 10 individuals; minimum aquarium size >200 cm; not recommended for home aquariums (Ref. 51539).
IUCN Red List Status: Least Concern (LC); Date assessed: 01 January 2008 Ref. (124695)
Threat to humans:  harmless
Country info:   

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