Gymnura altavela (Linnaeus, 1758)
Spiny butterfly ray
photo by Flescher, D.

Family:  Gymnuridae (Butterfly rays)
Max. size:  400 cm WD (male/unsexed); max.weight: 60 kg
Environment:  demersal; brackish; marine; depth range 5 - 100 m
Distribution:  Western Atlantic: southern New England, USA, Brazil (Ref. 7251) to Argentina (Ref. 58839). Eastern Atlantic: Portugal to Ambriz, Angola (including the Mediterranean, Black Sea, and the Madeira and Canary islands).
Diagnosis:  Tail short armed with spine. Disk very broad. Very low dorsal and ventral finfolds on tail (Ref. 7251). Disk dark brown to grayish, lower surface of disc and of pelvic fins white, brownish, rosy or rusty cast. Tail white or rosy white below (Ref. 6902).
Biology:  Maximum length measured is 140 cm (Ref. 5377). Occurs over sand and mud. Feeds on fishes, crustaceans, mollusks and plankton. Ovoviviparous, gestation lasting about 6 months with 4 to 7 embryos produced per female (Ref. 6676).
IUCN Red List Status: Endangered (EN); Date assessed: 21 June 2019 (A2d) Ref. (124695)
Threat to humans:  harmless
Country info:   

Entered by: Froese, Rainer - 01.05.91
Modified by: Luna, Susan M. - 10.12.07
Checked by: Agustin, Liza Q. - 14.04.94

Source and more info: For personal, classroom, and other internal use only. Not for publication.

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