Caulophryne polynema Regan, 1930
photo by Reiner, F.

Family:  Caulophrynidae (Fanfins)
Max. size:  1.6 cm SL (male/unsexed); 14.2 cm (female)
Environment:  bathypelagic; marine; depth range 900 - 1250 m
Distribution:  Eastern Atlantic: a single female with a parasitic male recorded from northeast of the Azores (Ref. 13584) and one record east of Cape Verde; reported from Iceland (Ref. 12462) and Namibia (Ref. 27121). Also known from the northwest Atlantic and Indo-Pacific.
Diagnosis:  Dorsal soft rays (total): 19-22; Anal soft rays: 17-19. Metamorphosed females distinguished by the following characteristics: illicium with numerous elongate translucent filaments along length; length of illicium 15.7-32.1%SL; illicium lightly pigmented along anterior margin, bearing numerous elongate translucent filaments, most of which arise from posterior margin; esca consisting of posterolateral appendage with palmate, opaque, distal tip and tapering terminal appendage with opaque distal tip; highly filamentous escal appendages in specimens larger than 44 mm, number and length of filaments reduced in smaller specimens; dorsal fin rays 19-22; anal fin rays 17-19; pectoral fin rays 15-18; upper jaw teeth 26-45; lower jaw teeth 16-32; teeth on vomer 1-3 (Ref. 86949).
Biology:  Meso- and bathypelagic at 0-2000 m fishing depths (Ref. 58302).
IUCN Red List Status: Least Concern (LC); Date assessed: 09 May 2013 Ref. (124695)
Threat to humans:  harmless
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