Bothus pantherinus (Rüppell, 1830)
Leopard flounder
photo by Muséum-Aquarium de Nancy/D. Terver

Family:  Bothidae (Lefteye flounders)
Max. size:  39 cm TL (male/unsexed)
Environment:  reef-associated; marine; depth range 3 - 150 m
Distribution:  Indo-Pacific: throughout the Indian Ocean, including the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf to Hawaiian, Marquesas, and Society islands, north to southern Japan, south to Lord Howe Island. Record from the eastern Mediterranean incorrect (Ref. 9824).
Diagnosis:  Dorsal spines (total): 0-0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 84-97; Anal spines: 0-0; Anal soft rays: 61-73. Eyed side with dark spots, blotches and rings on body and median fins; 1 distinct dark blotch on middle of straight section of lateral line; narrow dark crossbars on eyed side of pectorals (Ref. 4417). Pectoral rays 9-12 (eyed side) and 9-11 (blind side). Description: Characterized further by mottled grey brown body color; pectoral filamentous rays of male sometimes reaches as far posteriorly as caudal fin; weakly ctenoid scales or cycloid on eyed side, cycloid on blind side; short gill rakers; one or more short tentacle on eye; upper jaw extending to below anterior half of lower eye; one or more bony tubercles or short spines on snout and edge of eye in mature male (Ref. 90102).
Biology:  Inhabits sandy or silty sand, and muddy bottoms of inner reef flats and seaward reefs; juveniles frequently found in tide pools (Ref. 9824, 48637). Benthic (Ref. 58302). Feeds on benthic animals (Ref. 5213). Utilized as a food fish (Ref. 4537) and processed into fish meal (Ref. 9824).
IUCN Red List Status: Least Concern (LC); Date assessed: 03 March 2015 Ref. (130435)
Threat to humans:  harmless

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