Alburnoides bipunctatus (Bloch, 1782)
Alburnoides bipunctatus
photo by Artaev, O.

Family:  Leuciscidae (Minnows), subfamily: Leuciscinae
Max. size:  18.5 cm TL (male/unsexed); max.weight: 30.0 g
Environment:  benthopelagic; freshwater; brackish; pH range: 7 - 8, potamodromous
Distribution:  Europe and Asia: Loire drainage in France eastward, in nearly all rivers draining to southern Baltic, North, Black and Azov Seas; Caspian basin, in upper Volga and from Kura drainage southward to Iranian tributaries of Caspian; widespread in Iran. In Mediterannean basin, only in Rhône and some small coastal drainages from Provence (France) eastward to Genova (Italy), Aoos (Greece, Albania) and western Greece as far south as Sperchios drainage. In Marmara basin, western Anatolia south to Great Menderes drainage and in upper Euphrate and Tigris drainages. Aral basin, upper Amu Darja and Karakumskij drainages (Tukmenistan, Afghanistan). Appendix III of the Bern Convention (protected fauna).
Diagnosis:  Dorsal spines (total): 3-3; Dorsal soft rays (total): 7-8; Anal spines: 3-3; Anal soft rays: 13-18; Vertebrae: 38-40. Diagnosed from its congeners in Europe by following characters: anal fin with 12-17½ branched rays; snout length equal to or smaller than eye diameter; eye diameter about equal to interorbital distance; and mouth terminal (Ref. 59043). Caudal fin with 19 rays (Ref. 2196).
Biology:  Inhabit streams and rivers in foothills with well oxygenated, fast-flowing water. All age classes occur in open water of streams and small rivers (Ref. 59043). Found also in rivers with very calm waters. Feed on insect larvae and dead insects (Ref. 9696), as well as on crustaceans and diatoms. Spawn in small groups and lay eggs deep into gravel with swift current. Locally threatened by stream regulation, trout stocking and pollution. Attain a maximum size of up to about 13 cm SL (Ref. 59043).
IUCN Red List Status: Not Evaluated (N.E.) Ref. (124695)
Threat to humans:  harmless
Country info:   

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