Ecology of Gymnomuraena zebra
Main Ref. Hiatt, R.W. and D.W. Strasburg, 1960
Remarks A secretive inhabitant of sandy and rocky bottoms, crevices and ledges of seaward reefs (Ref. 9710, 48635). Benthic from 1-39 m, usually at <4 m (Ref. 58302). A sluggish secretive creature. Whether it is day or night, what is often seen is just a motionless segment of its body, visible at a narrow opening in the reef (Ref. 28023). A carnivore (Ref. 9137, 57615). It feeds primarily on xanthid crabs, but also on other crustaceans, mollusks and sea urchins (Ref. 9710, 48635). Also Ref. 58534. In terms of feeding behavior, strikes at small prey were targeted at the anterior region region of the cephalothorax and abdomen; while in large prey they are aimed at the chelipeds, walking legs, and/or lateral sidse of the carapace. Average number of strikes while feeding on large prey was eight times the number of strikes when feeding on small prey. Time to locate and catch prey differed significantly between small and large prey. Prey manipulation and feeding behaviors while feeding on small prey involve 'M' (i.e., the eel moves in a general forward and/or reverse direction, possibly forming an "M" configuration) and feeding; while consuming large prey is defined by "M", rotation, releasing, and feeding (Ref. 118229).

Aquatic zones / Water bodies

Marine - Neritic Marine - Oceanic Brackishwater Freshwater
Marine zones / Brackish and freshwater bodies
  • supra-littoral zone
  • littoral zone
  • sublittoral zone
  • epipelagic
  • mesopelagic
  • epipelagic
  • abyssopelagic
  • hadopelagic
  • estuaries/lagoons/brackish seas
  • mangroves
  • marshes/swamps
  • rivers/streams
  • lakes/ponds
  • caves
  • exclusively in caves
Highighted items on the list are where Gymnomuraena zebra may be found.


Substrate Benthic; Soft Bottom: sand; Hard Bottom: rocky;
Substrate Ref.
Special habitats Coral Reefs;
Special habitats Ref. Dominici-Arosemena, A. and M. Wolff, 2006


Associated with
Association remarks


Feeding type mainly animals (troph. 2.8 and up)
Feeding type Ref. Hiatt, R.W. and D.W. Strasburg, 1960
Feeding habit hunting macrofauna (predator)
Feeding habit Ref. Dominici-Arosemena, A. and M. Wolff, 2006
Trophic Level(s)
Estimation method Original sample Unfished population Remark
Troph s.e. Troph s.e.
From diet composition
From individual food items 3.36 0.43 Trophic level estimated from a number of food items using a randomized resampling routine.
(e.g. 346)
(e.g. cnidaria)
Entered by Sa-a, Pascualita on 04.07.97
Modified by Polido, Rubyann Robelle on 06.28.18
Checked by Sta. Iglesia, Drina on 05.29.01
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