Ecology of Fundulus heteroclitus
Main Ref. Pauly, D., 1989
Remarks A resident intertidal species with homing behavior (Ref. 32612). Mainly found in saltwater marshes and in tidal creeks. May leave tide pools if aquatic conditions become inhospitable (Ref. 31184). Enters fresh water to limited extent (Ref. 7251). Omnivorous feeder, food includes small crustaceans, polychaetes, insect larvae and vegetable matter. Preyed upon by kingfishers, small mammals, brook trout and bullfrogs.

Aquatic zones / Water bodies

Marine - Neritic Marine - Oceanic Brackishwater Freshwater
Marine zones / Brackish and freshwater bodies
  • supra-littoral zone
  • littoral zone
  • sublittoral zone
  • epipelagic
  • mesopelagic
  • epipelagic
  • abyssopelagic
  • hadopelagic
  • estuaries/lagoons/brackish seas
  • mangroves
  • marshes/swamps
  • rivers/streams
  • lakes/ponds
  • caves
  • exclusively in caves
Highighted items on the list are where Fundulus heteroclitus may be found.


Substrate Ref.
Special habitats
Special habitats Ref.


Ref. Scott, W.B. and M.G. Scott, 1988
Associated with
Association remarks Parasites of the species include 4 trematodes (like Distomum and Gyrodactylus), 2 protozoans, 1 myxosporidian, 4 monogeans, 1 cestode, 1 acanthocephalan and 1 branchiuran (Ref. 5951).


Feeding type mainly animals (troph. 2.8 and up)
Feeding type Ref. Pauly, D., 1989
Feeding habit variable
Feeding habit Ref.
Trophic Level(s)
Estimation method Original sample Unfished population Remark
Troph s.e. Troph s.e.
From diet composition
From individual food items 3.59 0.48 Trophic level estimated from a number of food items using a randomized resampling routine.
(e.g. 346)
(e.g. cnidaria)
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