Ecology of Spondyliosoma cantharus
Main Ref. Gonçalves, J.M.S. and K. Erzini, 1998
Remarks Found over seagrass beds and rocky and sandy bottoms to about 300 m (Ref. 3688). Gregarious, sometimes in large schools (Ref. 3688). Omnivorous, feeding on seaweeds and small invertebrates, especially crustaceans (Ref. 3688).

Aquatic zones / Water bodies

Marine - Neritic Marine - Oceanic Brackishwater Freshwater
Marine zones / Brackish and freshwater bodies
  • supra-littoral zone
  • littoral zone
  • sublittoral zone
  • epipelagic
  • mesopelagic
  • epipelagic
  • abyssopelagic
  • hadopelagic
  • estuaries/lagoons/brackish seas
  • mangroves
  • marshes/swamps
  • rivers/streams
  • lakes/ponds
  • caves
  • exclusively in caves
Highighted items on the list are where Spondyliosoma cantharus may be found.


Substrate Ref.
Special habitats
Special habitats Ref.


Associated with
Association remarks


Feeding type mainly animals (troph. 2.8 and up)
Feeding type Ref. Gonçalves, J.M.S. and K. Erzini, 1998
Feeding habit variable
Feeding habit Ref. Bauchot, M.-L. and J.-C. Hureau, 1990
Trophic Level(s)
Estimation method Original sample Unfished population Remark
Troph s.e. Troph s.e.
From diet composition 3.34 0.22 Troph of juv./adults from 2 studies.
From individual food items 3.27 0.47 Trophic level estimated from a number of food items using a randomized resampling routine.
Ref. Bell, J.D. and M.L. Harmelin-Vivien, 1983
(e.g. 346)
(e.g. cnidaria)
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