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Tylosurus crocodilus (Péron & Lesueur, 1821)

Hound needlefish
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Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
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Tylosurus crocodilus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Tylosurus crocodilus
Picture by Baur, J.-C.

Philippines country information

Common names: Baa, Babayu, Bala
Occurrence: native
Salinity: marine
Abundance: | Ref:
Importance: commercial | Ref:
Aquaculture: | Ref:
Regulations: | Ref:
Uses: no uses
Comments: Known in Calamianes Islands, northern Palawan (Ref. 48613), Danjugan Island, Negros Occidental (Ref. 58652) and Lanuza Bay (Ref. 104756). Utilized as a food fish (Ref. 6565). Also Ref. 12744.
National Checklist:
Country Information:
National Fisheries Authority:
Occurrences: Occurrences Point map
Main Ref: Rau, N. and A. Rau, 1980
National Database:

Common names from other countries

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes(genus, species) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Teleostei (teleosts) > Beloniformes (Needle fishes) > Belonidae (Needlefishes)
Etymology: Tylosurus: Greek, tylos = callus + Greek, oura = tail (Ref. 45335).
  More on authors: Péron & Lesueur.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; reef-associated; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 0 - 13 m (Ref. 58302).   Tropical; 26°C - 29°C (Ref. 4959); 21°N - 1°N

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Indo-West Pacific: Red Sea and South Africa (Ref. 5317) and Persian Gulf (Ref. 68964) to French Polynesia (Ref. 6784), north to Japan (Ref. 559), south to New South Wales, Australia (Ref. 33390). Replaced by Tylosurus crocodilus fodiator in the eastern Pacific. Western Atlantic: New Jersey, USA to Brazil (Ref. 7251). Eastern Atlantic: Fernando Poo, Cameroon, Liberia, and Ascension Island (Ref. 5757); from Senegal and Guinea (Ref. 28587); and Cape Verde (Ref. 27000). Recorded from the Mediterranean Sea (Ref. 83387).

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm 51.7, range 50 - 55 cm
Max length : 150 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 30573); common length : 90.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9682); max. published weight: 6.4 kg (Ref. 40637)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 21-24; Anal spines: 0; Anal soft rays: 19 - 22; Vertebrae: 75 - 80. This species with is distinguished by the following characters: body elongate, circular in cross-section; D 21-24 with anterior rays forming a relatively high lobe, 5.4-10.6 body length (excluding the head and caudal fin); dorsal fin origin about equal with or slightly in front to anal fin origin; A 19-22 with anterior rays forming a relatively high lobe, in 5.5-8.0 in BL; pectoral-fin rays 13 to 15 (usually 14 or 15); 270-340 predorsal scales; 75-80 vertebrae; jaws extremely long, forming a stout beak armed with very sharp teeth; no gill rakers absent; caudal fin deeply emarginate, the lower lobe much longer than the upper one and the caudal peduncle with a distinct, black lateral keel; body colour dark bluish green above, silvery below; juveniles (to 20 cm body length) with elevated black lobe in posterior part of dorsal fin which is lost with growth; scales and bones green (Ref. 9682, 90102).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

A pelagic species (Ref. 26340) found over lagoon and seaward reefs. Solitary or in small groups. Feeds on fishes (Ref. 11889). Oviparous (Ref. 205). Eggs may be found attached to objects in the water by tendrils on the egg's surface (Ref. 205). Feared by fishers because they can cause puncture wounds with their sharp snouts when jumping out of the water, e.g. when alarmed or attracted to lights at night. Although sold fresh and considered a good food fish, its market is limited due to the green-colored flesh (Ref. 5217). Widespread in tropical Indo-Pacific, divisible in two subspecies (Ref 90102). Caught by casting or trolling surface or near-surface lures; also with purse seines and drift nets (Ref. 9682).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Collette, Bruce B. | Collaborators

Randall, J.E., G.R. Allen and R.C. Steene, 1990. Fishes of the Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, Hawaii. 506 p. (Ref. 2334)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)

  Least Concern (LC) ; Date assessed: 21 August 2012

CITES (Ref. 123416)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Traumatogenic (Ref. 4690)

Human uses

Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
FAO(Fisheries: production; publication : search) | FishSource | Sea Around Us

More information

Common names
Egg development
Aquaculture profile
Allele frequencies
Mass conversion
Stamps, Coins Misc.
Swim. type
Gill area


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Internet sources

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 27.1 - 29.2, mean 28.5 (based on 1591 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804):  PD50 = 0.5078   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00107 (0.00088 - 0.00130), b=3.11 (3.05 - 3.17), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
Trophic level (Ref. 69278):  4.4   ±0.4 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Prior r = 0.57, 95% CL = 0.38 - 0.86, Based on 1 stock assessment.
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Moderate to high vulnerability (47 of 100).
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649):  Very high vulnerability (91 of 100).
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Medium.