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Elagatis bipinnulata (Quoy & Gaimard, 1825)

Rainbow runner
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Elagatis bipinnulata   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Elagatis bipinnulata
Picture by Freitas, R.

Philippines country information

Common names: Balilito, Bangkulisan, Bansikol
Occurrence: native
Salinity: marine
Abundance: | Ref:
Importance: commercial | Ref:
Aquaculture: | Ref:
Regulations: | Ref:
Uses: no uses
Comments: Known from Romblon (Ref. 58652). Also Ref. 3287, 53416, 121724.
National Checklist:
Country Information:
National Fisheries Authority:
Occurrences: Occurrences Point map
Main Ref: Conlu, P.V., 1986
National Database:

Common names from other countries

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes(genus, species) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Teleostei (teleosts) > Carangiformes (Jacks) > Carangidae (Jacks and pompanos) > Naucratinae
Etymology: Elagatis: Greek, elakate, -es = distaff, cane (Ref. 45335).
  More on authors: Quoy & Gaimard.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; reef-associated; depth range 0 - 150 m (Ref. 9710), usually 2 - 10 m (Ref. 40849).   Subtropical; 44°N - 41°S, 180°W - 180°E

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Western Atlantic: Massachusetts, USA and northern Gulf of Mexico to Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (Ref. 57756). Eastern Atlantic: off Genoa, Italy in the Mediterranean (Ref. 4233) and from Côte d'Ivoire to Angola (Ref. 7097). Throughout the Indo-Pacific (Ref. 37816), but rare or absent in the Persian Gulf (Ref. 3287). Eastern Pacific: mouth of Gulf of California to Ecuador; including the Galapagos Islands (Ref. 9283).

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm 64.6  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 180 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 26340); common length : 90.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217); max. published weight: 46.2 kg (Ref. 40637); max. reported age: 6 years (Ref. 96992)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 7; Dorsal soft rays (total): 25-30; Anal spines: 2; Anal soft rays: 18 - 22; Vertebrae: 24. This species is distinguished by the following characters: the upper jaw ending distinctly before eye (and to below anterior margin of eye in young); dorsal fin with a detached terminal 2-rayed finlet; anal fin with a slightly detached spine from the rest of fin and covered by skin in fish of larger sizes, then followed by a second spine continuous with the 18-22 soft rays, including a detached 2-rayed finlet. Colour dark olive-blue or green dorsally and on side, white ventrally with 2 narrow light blue or bluish white stripes along sides and a broader olive or yellowish stripe between them; fins olive or yellowish (Ref. 9894,90102).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Adults are found in oceanic and coastal waters, generally near the surface over reefs or sometimes far from the coast often around floating logs or other debris (Ref. 9283, 11230, 48635, 90102). May form large schools (Ref. 9283, 48635). They feed on invertebrates, mainly on larger crustaceans of the zooplankton, and small fishes (Ref. 9283, 26145). Eggs are pelagic (Ref. 4233). Good food fish (Ref. 9626) and a valued game fish (Ref. 26938); marketed fresh and salted or dried (Ref. 9283); also frozen and used for sashimi (Ref. 9987).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Smith-Vaniz, William F. | Collaborators

Smith-Vaniz, W.F., 1986. Carangidae. p. 638-661. In M.M. Smith and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Smiths' sea fishes. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. (Ref. 3197)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)

  Least Concern (LC) ; Date assessed: 21 August 2012

CITES (Ref. 128078)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 30911)

Human uses

Fisheries: highly commercial; gamefish: yes
FAO(Fisheries: production, species profile; publication : search) | FishSource | Sea Around Us

More information

FAO areas
Food items
Food consumption
Common names
Egg development
Aquaculture profile
Allele frequencies
Mass conversion
Stamps, Coins Misc.
Swim. type
Gill area


Special reports

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Internet sources

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 22.8 - 28.8, mean 27.5 (based on 5152 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804):  PD50 = 1.0000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01000 (0.00584 - 0.01711), b=2.85 (2.70 - 3.00), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245).
Trophic level (Ref. 69278):  4.3   ±0.0 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (tmax=6; K=0.6 is doubtful).
Prior r = 0.58, 95% CL = 0.39 - 0.88, Based on 2 stock assessments.
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Moderate to high vulnerability (51 of 100).
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649):  High to very high vulnerability (74 of 100).
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Medium.